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Daily Report #4166

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Old July 31st 06, 03:18 PM posted to sci.astro.hubble
Lynn Bassford
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Posts: 25
Default Daily Report #4166

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE - Continuing to collect World Class Science


PERIOD COVERED: UT July 28,29,30 2006 (DOY 209,210,211)


NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 8794

NICMOS Post-SAA calibration - CR Persistence Part 5

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of
NICMOS. Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA
contour 23, and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50
minutes of coming out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in
parallel in all three NICMOS Cameras. The POST-SAA darks will be non-
standard reference files available to users with a USEAFTER date/time
mark. The keyword 'USEAFTER=date/time' will also be added to the
header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword must be populated with
the time, in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8
times per day so each POST-SAA DARK will need to have the appropriate
time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both the raw
and processed images will be archived as POST-SAA DARKSs. Generally we
expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within
50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to remove the CR
persistence from the science images. Each observation will need its
own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the
NICMOS detectors.

FGS 10928

Calibrating Cosmological Chronometers: White Dwarf Masses

We propose to use HST/FGS1R to determine White Dwarf {WD} masses. The
unmatched resolving power of HST/FGS1R will be utilized to follow up
four selected WD binary pairs. This high precision obtained with
HST/FGS1R simply cannot be equaled by any ground based technique. This
proposed effort complements that done by CoI Nelan in which a sample
of WDs is being observed with HST/FGS1R. This proposal will
dramatically increase the number of WDs for which dynamical mass
measurements are possible, enabling a better calibration of the WD
mass-radius relation, cooling curves, initial to final mass relations,
and ultimately giving important clues to the star formation history of
our Galaxy and the age of its disk as well as in other galaxies.

NIC1 10889

The Nature of the Halos and Thick Disks of Spiral Galaxies

We propose to resolve the extra-planar stellar populations of the
thick disks and halos of seven nearby, massive, edge-on galaxies using
ACS, NICMOS, and WFPC2 in parallel. These observations will provide
accurate star counts and color-magnitude diagrams 1.5 magnitudes below
the tip of the Red Giant Branch sampled along the two principal axes
and one intermediate axis of each galaxy. We will measure the
metallicity distribution functions and stellar density profiles from
star counts down to very low average surface brightnesses, equivalent
to ~32 V-mag per square arcsec. These observations will provide the
definitive HST study of extra-planar stellar populations of spiral
galaxies. Our targets cover a range in galaxy mass, luminosity, and
morphology and as function of these galaxy properties we will provide:
- The first systematic study of the radial and isophotal shapes of the
diffuse stellar halos of spiral galaxies - The most detailed
comparative study to date of thick disk morphologies and stellar
populations - A comprehensive analysis of halo and thick disk
metallicity distributions as a function of galaxy type and position
within the galaxy. - A sensitive search for tidal streams - The first
opportunity to directly relate globular cluster systems to their field
stellar population We will use these fossil records of the galaxy
assembly process preserved in the old stellar populations to test halo
and thick disk formation models within the hierarchical galaxy
formation scheme. We will test LambdaCDM predictions on sub-galactic
scales, where it is difficult to test using CMB and galaxy redshift
surveys, and where it faces its most serious difficulties.

ACS/HRC 10860

The largest Kuiper belt object

The past year has seen an explosion in the discoveries of Pluto-sized
objects in the Kuiper belt. With the discoveries of the
methane-covered 2003 UB313 and 2005 FY9, the multiple satellite system
of 2003 EL61, and the Pluto-Charon analog system of Orcus and its
satellite, it is finally apparent that Pluto is not a unique oddball
at the edge of the solar system, but rather one of a family of
similarly large objects in the Kuiper belt and beyond. HST
observations over the past decade have been critical for understanding
the interior, surface, and atmosphere of Pluto and Charon. We propose
here a comprehensive series of observations designed to similarly
expand our knowledge of these recently discovered Pluto-sized and
near-Pluto-sized Kuiper belt objects. These observations will measure
objects' sizes and densities, explore the outcome of collisions in the
outer solar system, and allow the first ever look at the interior
structure of a Kuiper belt object. Our wide field survey that
discovered all of these objects is nearly finished, so after five
years of continuous searching we are finally almost complete in our
tally of these near-Pluto-sized objects. This large HST request is the
culmination of this half-decade search for new planetary-sized
objects. As has been demonstrated repeatedly by the approximately 100
previous orbits devoted to the study of Pluto, only HST has the
resolution and sensitivity for detailed study of these distant
objects. With these new Pluto-sized objects only now being discovered
we have a limited window left to still use HST for these critical

ACS/HRC 10800

Kuiper Belt Binaries: Probes of Early Solar System Evolution

Binaries in the Kuiper Belt are a scientific windfall: in them we have
relatively fragile test particles which can be used as tracers of the
early dynamical evolution of the outer Solar System. We propose to
continue a Snapshot program using the ACS/HRC that has a demonstrated
discovery potential an order of magnitude higher than the HST
observations that have already discovered the majority of known
transneptunian binaries. With this continuation we seek to reach the
original goals of this project: to accumulate a sufficiently large
sample in each of the distinct populations collected in the Kuiper
Belt to be able to measure, with statistical significance, how the
fraction of binaries varies as a function of their particular
dynamical paths into the Kuiper Belt. Today's Kuiper Belt bears the
imprints of the final stages of giant-planet building and migration;
binaries may offer some of the best preserved evidence of that
long-ago era.

NIC3 10761

The X-ray Spectral and Optical/IR Flux Variability in Magnetars

In the last decade it has become clear that there exists a small
subset of pulsars that are powered neither by rotation nor accretion
but by the decay of their enormous magnetic fields -- magnetars. The
origin of the X-ray emission from magnetar-candidate AXPs {Anomalous
X-ray Pulsars} is fairly well understood within the framework of the
magnetar model. However, where and how the optical/IR emission is
produced is unclear. If, as recent models suggest, the optical/IR
emission is magnetospheric, then any variation in the optical/IR flux
should be accompanied by variation in the X-ray spectra. We therefore
propose for joint Chandra-Hubble observations of two magnetar
candidates in order to test the optical/IR emission models for


ACS CCDs daily monitor

This program consists of a set of basic tests to monitor, the read
noise, the development of hot pixels and test for any source of noise
in ACS CCD detectors. The files, biases and dark will be used to
create reference files for science calibration. This programme will be
for the entire lifetime of ACS. Changes from cycle 13:- The default
gain for WFC is 2 e- /DN. As before bias frames will be collected for
both gain 1 and gain 2. Dark frames are acquired using the default
gain {2}. This program cover the period May, 31 2006- Oct, 1- 2006.
The first half of the program has a different proposal number: 10729.

ACS/WFC 10624

Solving the Mystery of the Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts

Eight years after the afterglow detections that revolutionized studies
of the long-soft gamma-ray bursts, not even one afterglow of a
short-hard GRB has been seen, and the nature of these events has
become one of the most important problems in GRB research. The Swift
satellite, expected to be in full operation throughout Cycle 14, will
report few- arcsecond localizations for short-hard bursts in minutes,
enabling prompt, deep optical afterglow searches for the first time.
Discovery and observation of the first short-hard optical afterglows
will answer most of the critical questions about these events: What
are their distances and energies? Do they occur in distant galaxies,
and if so, in which regions of those galaxies? Are they the result of
collimated or quasi-spherical explosions? In combination with an
extensive rapid-response ground-based campaign, we propose to make the
critical high-sensitivity HST TOO observations that will allow us to
answer these questions. If theorists are correct in attributing the
short-hard bursts to binary neutron star coalescence events, then they
will serve as signposts to the primary targeted source population for
ground-based gravitational-wave detectors, and short-hard burst
studies will have a vital role to play in guiding those observations.

ACS/HRC 10602

A Complete Multiplicity Survey of Galactic O2/O3/O3.5 Stars with ACS

Massive stars are preferentially formed in compact multiple systems
and clusters and many of them remain spatially unresolved to date,
even in our Galaxy. This has hindered the determination of the stellar
upper mass limit. The lack of an accurate knowledge of the
multiplicity of massive stars can also introduce biases in the
calculation of the IMF at its high-mass end. We have recently used
ACS/HRC to resolve HD 93129 A, the earliest O- type star known in the
Galaxy, into a 55 mas binary. We propose here to extend that work into
a complete multi-filter ACS imaging survey of all {20} known
O2/O3/O3.5 Galactic stars to characterize the multiplicity of the most
massive stars. The data will be combined with existing FGS
observations to explore as large a parameter range as possible and to
check for consistency. We will also derive the IMF of each system
using a crowded-field photometry package and processing the data with
CHORIZOS, a code that can derive stellar temperatures, extinctions,
and extinction laws from multicolor photometry.

ACS/WFC 10596

AGNs with Intermediate-mass Black Holes: A Test of the Black
Hole-Bulge Paradigm

The recent progress in the study of central black holes in galactic
nuclei has led to a general consensus that supermassive {10^6-10^9
solar mass} black holes are closely connected with the formation and
evolutionary history of large galaxies, especially their bulge
component. Two outstanding issues, however, remain unresolved. Can
central black holes form in the absence of a bulge? And does the mass
function of central black holes extend below 10^6 solar masses?
Intermediate-mass black holes {10^4-10^6 solar masses}, if they exist,
may offer important clues to the nature of the seeds of supermassive
black holes. In a first systematic search using the Sloan Digital Sky
Survey, we have recently discovered 19 Type 1 AGNs with candidate
intermediate-mass black holes that reside in low-luminosity,
presumably late-type host galaxies. Follow-up observations with Keck
indicate that these objects obey the low-mass extension of the
well-known correlation between black hole mass and bulge stellar
velocity dispersion. However, very little is known about the host
galaxies themselves, including the crucial question of whether they
have bulges or not. We propose to obtain ACS/WFC images of this unique
sample of AGNs in order to investigate the detailed structural
properties of the host galaxies. We are particularly keen to determine
whether the hosts contain bulges, and if so, where they lie on the
fundamental plane of spheroids compared to the bulges of supermassive
black holes. We will also be able to measure an accurate optical
luminosity for the AGN, which is an essential ingredient to improve
the current mass estimates.

ACS/WFC 10587

Measuring the Mass Dependence of Early-Type Galaxy Structure

We propose two-color ACS-WFC Snapshot observations of a sample of 118
candidate early-type gravitational lens galaxies. Our lens-candidate
sample is selected to yield {in combination with earlier results} an
approximately uniform final distribution of 40 early-type strong
lenses across a wide range of masses, with velocity dispersions {a
dynamical proxy for mass} ranging from 125 to 300 km/s. The proposed
program will deliver the first significant sample of low-mass
gravitational lenses. All of our candidates have known lens and source
redshifts from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, and all are bright
enough to permit detailed photometric and stellar-dynamical
observation. We will constrain the luminous and dark-matter mass
profiles of confirmed lenses using lensed-image geometry and
lens-galaxy structural/photometric measurements from HST imaging in
combination with dynamical measurements from spatially resolved
ground-based follow- up spectroscopy. Hence we will determine, in
unprecedented detail, the dependence of early-type galaxy mass
structure and mass-to-light ratio upon galaxy mass. These results will
allow us to directly test theoretical predictions for halo
concentration and star-formation efficiency as a function of mass and
for the existence of a cuspy inner dark-matter component, and will
illuminate the structural explanation behind the fundamental plane of
early-type galaxies. The lens-candidate selection and confirmation
strategy that we propose has been proven successful for high-mass
galaxies by our Cycle 13 Snapshot program {10174}. The program that we
propose here will produce a complementary and unprecedented lens
sample spanning a wide range of lens-galaxy masses.

NIC2/ACS/WFC/WFPC 10532 2 Kinematics and morphology of the most
massive field disk galaxies at z1

We propose to obtain 1 orbit NIC-2 images of a sample of the 15 most
massive galaxies found at $1 z 1.3$. These were culled from over
20, 000 Keck spectra collected as part of DEEP and are unique among
high redshift massive galaxy samples in being kinematically selected.
We intend to test whether these potentially very young galaxies are
likely precursors to massive local disks, assuming no further merging.
NIC-2 images provide rest-frame optical morphologies that will show
whether they are normal disky systems or instead more disturbed
looking objects with multiple subcomponents, mergers, peculiar
structure, etc. NIC-2 provides near-IR resolutions sufficient to
enable measurements of bulges and disks subcomponents. The near-IR
will fill a critical gap in the broad-band SED photometry of the
galaxy and its subcomponents to estimate mean stellar ages and stellar
masses and to assess whether old stellar bulges and disks are in place
at that time. Finally, this sample will yield the first statistically
significant results on the $z 1$ evolution of the Tully-Fisher
relation for massive galaxies. In addition, we propose parallel
observations with ACS WFC {V and I bands} and WFPC2 {I-band}. These
will target up to 700 galaxies at redshifts 0.7 ... 1.2 for which the
DEEP2 survey has obtained precision redshifts and high-resolution
kinematic data. The added HST morphology and color information will
allow a variety of detailed studies on dynamical, structural, and
photometric evolution of galaxies.

NIC1 10517

Imaging Astrometrically-Discovered Brown Dwarfs

We propose to image the astrometrically discovered companions of three
M-dwarfs with NICMOS to more tightly constrain their masses and
determine their stellar or sub-stellar natures. Each of these systems
has been observed with a sensitive ground-based adaptive optics system
and no companions have been detected. NICMOS results will eliminate an
ambiguity in the astrometric mass measurements that arises because a
companion that contributes significantly to the visible light reduces
the motion of the center of light and mimics a small motion of the
center of mass. In addition the astrometric measurements made with
NICMOS will fix the scale of the system, distinguishing among possible
orbits. Finally the color photometry will constrain the spectral types
to within a couple of subtypes. When we measure the masses of
astrophysical objects, we test and assist the development of the
theoretical mass models. Models are based upon parameters such as age
and metallicity. Determining the correct mass thus deepens our
understanding of the fundamental physics of stars and substellar

NIC3/ACS/WFC 10504

Characterizing the Sources Responsible for Cosmic Reionization

Our group has demonstrated the role that massive clusters, acting as
powerful cosmic lenses, can play in constraining the abundance and
properties of low-luminosity star- forming sources beyond z~6; such
sources are thought to be responsible for ending cosmic reionization.
The large magnification possible in the critical regions of well-
constrained clusters brings sources into view that lie at or beyond
the limits of conventional exposures such as the UDF, as well as those
in imaging surveys being undertaken with IRAC onboard Spitzer. We have
shown that the combination of HST and Spitzer is particularly
effective in delivering the physical properties of these distant
sources, constraining their mass, age and past star formation history.
Indirectly, we therefore gain a valuable glimpse to yet earlier
epochs. Recognizing the result {and limitations} of the UDF exposure,
we propose a systematic search through 6 lensing clusters with ACS and
NICMOS for further z~6-7 sources in conjunction with existing deep
IRAC data. Our survey will mitigate cosmic variance and extend the
search both to lower luminosities and, by virtue of the NICMOS/IRAC
combination, to higher redshift. The goal is to count and characterize
representative sources at z~6-10 and to delineate the redshift range
of activity for the planning of future observations.

FGS 10103

FGS Astrometry of a Star Hosting an Extrasolar Planet: The Mass of
Upsilon Andromedae d

We propose observations with HST/FGS to determine the astrometric
elements {perturbation orbit semimajor axis and inclination} produced
by the outermost extra-solar planet orbiting the F8V star Upsilon
Andromedae. These observations will permit us to determine the actual
mass of the planet by providing the presently unknown sin i factor
intrinsic to the radial velocity method which discovered this object.
An inclination, i = 30degrees, within the range of one very low
precision determination using reanalyzed HIPPARCOS intermediate data
products, would produce the observed radial velocity amplitude, K = 66
ms with a companion mass of ~8 M_Jupiter. Such a mass would induce in
Upsilon Andromedae a perturbation semi-major axis, Alpha = 0arcs0012,
easily within the reach of HST/FGS fringe tracking astrometry. The
proposed observations will yield a planetary mass, rather than, as
previous investigations have done, only suggest a planetary mass


Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary
reports of potential non-nominal performance that will be


#10384 GSACQ(2,3,2) fails to RGA control @ 211/03:01:04z

GSACQ(2,3,2) failed to acquire lock 3min 3sec after start of
observation. No Scan Step Limit or Search Radius Limit flags were seen
in extracted engineering data. REACQ(2,3,2) at 04:30:15 also failed at
04:44:01. Observations affected: ACS 196 to 202.

#10385 GSAcq(2,1,2) failed to RGA Control @ 211/13:42:01z

The GSAcq(2,1,2) failed to RGA Hold due to search radius limit
exceeded on FGS-2. Pre-acquisition OBADs had (RSS) attitude error
corrections values of 4120.00 and 4236.78 arcseconds. OBAD success
flags incremented (mnemonic GCHACL09 equals 2). Post-acquisition
OBAD/MAP had 3-axis (RSS) value of 137.60 arcseconds. REacq(2,1,2) @
211/15:17:10 failed during LOS. Observations affected: NICMOS 45 thru


#1512-0 Extra SSR Engineering Dump for DOY 209 @ 209/1258z

FGS GSacq 21 19
FGS REacq 23 21
OBAD with Maneuver 88 88



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