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Black Holes do exist?



 
 
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  #1  
Old December 1st 05, 10:20 PM posted to sci.astro.amateur
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Default Black Holes do exist?

cientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have discovered
evidence of energetic plumes – particles that extend 300,000 light
years into a massive cluster of galaxies. The plumes are due to
explosive venting from the vicinity of a supermassive black hole, and
they provide dramatic new evidence of the influence a black hole can
have over intergalactic distances.

Image: X-ray image of Perseus Cluster. Credit: NASA/CXC/IoA/J.Sanders
et al

"In relative terms, it is as if a heat source the size of a fingernail
affects the behavior of a region the size of Earth," said Andrew
Fabian of Cambridge University, U.K. Fabian is lead author of a report
on this research that will appear in an upcoming issue of the Monthly
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Fabian's group discovered the plumes by studying data from 280 hours
(more than 1 million seconds) of Chandra observations of the Perseus
cluster, the longest X-ray observation ever taken of a galaxy cluster.
The cluster contains thousands of galaxies immersed in a vast cloud of
multi-million degree gas with the mass equivalent of trillions of
suns.

The plumes showed up in the X-ray data as low pressure regions in the
hot gas extending outward from the giant galaxy in the center of the
cluster. The low gas pressure measured in the plumes is likely the
result of the displacement of the gas by bubbles of unseen high-energy
particles.

The bubbles appear to be generated by high-speed jets blasting away
from the vicinity of the giant galaxy's supermassive black hole.
Individual bubbles seen in the inner regions expand and merge to
create vast plumes at larger distances.

"The plumes show that the black hole has been venting for at least 100
million years, and probably much longer," said co-author Jeremy
Sanders also of Cambridge University.

The venting produces sound waves which heat the gas throughout the
inner regions of the cluster and prevent the gas from cooling and
making stars at a large rate. This process has slowed the growth of
the central galaxy in the cluster, NGC 1275, which is one of the
largest galaxies in the universe.

Source: Chandra X-ray Center




This news is brought to you by PhysOrg.com

  #2  
Old December 2nd 05, 09:49 AM posted to sci.astro.amateur
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Posts: n/a
Default Black Holes do exist?

Rich wrote:

cientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have discovered
evidence of energetic plumes – particles that extend 300,000 light
years into a massive cluster of galaxies. The plumes are due to
explosive venting from the vicinity of a supermassive black hole, and
they provide dramatic new evidence of the influence a black hole can
have over intergalactic distances.

Image: X-ray image of Perseus Cluster. Credit: NASA/CXC/IoA/J.Sanders
et al

"In relative terms, it is as if a heat source the size of a fingernail
affects the behavior of a region the size of Earth," said Andrew
Fabian of Cambridge University, U.K. Fabian is lead author of a report
on this research that will appear in an upcoming issue of the Monthly
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Fabian's group discovered the plumes by studying data from 280 hours
(more than 1 million seconds) of Chandra observations of the Perseus
cluster, the longest X-ray observation ever taken of a galaxy cluster.
The cluster contains thousands of galaxies immersed in a vast cloud of
multi-million degree gas with the mass equivalent of trillions of
suns.

The plumes showed up in the X-ray data as low pressure regions in the
hot gas extending outward from the giant galaxy in the center of the
cluster. The low gas pressure measured in the plumes is likely the
result of the displacement of the gas by bubbles of unseen high-energy
particles.

The bubbles appear to be generated by high-speed jets blasting away
from the vicinity of the giant galaxy's supermassive black hole.
Individual bubbles seen in the inner regions expand and merge to
create vast plumes at larger distances.

"The plumes show that the black hole has been venting for at least 100
million years, and probably much longer," said co-author Jeremy
Sanders also of Cambridge University.

The venting produces sound waves which heat the gas throughout the
inner regions of the cluster and prevent the gas from cooling and
making stars at a large rate. This process has slowed the growth of
the central galaxy in the cluster, NGC 1275, which is one of the
largest galaxies in the universe.

Source: Chandra X-ray Center


And this is real science derived from actual observations. The images of
Perseus A (NGC 1275) that accompany it are online at:

http://chandra.harvard.edu/press/00_...60700pers.html

Incidentally, it is worth pointing out that the reason astronomers
prefer black holes to power radio galaxies is that nuclear reactions are
nowhere near powerful enough per unit volume.

Black hole - gravitational potential energy ~ 30% rest mass
Nuclear fusion - nuclear reactions ~ 0.1% rest mass
Chemistry - chemical reactions 1ppm rest mass

It just isn't possible to power a radio galaxy with nuclear reactions.
They are too limp and feeble. Only gravity is sufficiently efficient.

Incidentally we see stellar scale models of the basic principles
involved in the cataclysimic variable stars. See for example:

http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/sc...variables.html

Regards,
Martin Brown
  #3  
Old December 2nd 05, 05:49 PM posted to sci.astro.amateur
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Posts: n/a
Default Black Holes do exist?

Unlike anyone here I have the luxury of knowing the the process of
stellar collapse is far more complicated and with more cycles than what
is currently proposed.

That is why in 1990 or 4 years before SN1987A was observed I had
already constructed outer boundary rings with a smaller ring at
intersection, (btw ,it is the only writing I ever copyrighted ).

http://th.nao.ac.jp/openhouse/1998/v...e4/sn1987a.jpg

These may not be the signature of the death throes of a star but rather
the birth of a solar system,that's right !,nobody thought that there
are intermdiate stages in stellar evolution.

It also shows that attempting to reconcile a circumfernce with a center
using the linguistic tinsel of BH cosmology is a mug's game,sort of
Zeno's paradox imposed on the cosmos.If you want to join the theortical
game of baffling yourself then black holes are for you.

Even though stellar process is useful,the indignities and novelties
that theorists impose of the cosmos now only look silly rather than
its desired effect.

Those rings represent natural effeciency in stellar evolution,perhaps
someday I will explain that everyone is surrounded by the geometrical
clues to natural effeciency and it is what makes the Earth
geometrically special for the variety of geometric forms displaying
beauty and effeciency.That is what I see in those rings.

  #4  
Old November 15th 18, 09:13 PM posted to sci.astro.amateur
Gerald Kelleher
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Posts: 1,551
Default Black Holes do exist?

So many things have changed since 2005 - so while theorists are stuck in a conceptual rut, imaging range and power has increased, transmission of observations is easier and so many other things to move the narrative along.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped...to_explode.jpg

In terms of stellar evolution, the rings present efficiency in stellar processes including those supernovae which go on to create solar system structure after a transition phases.

The key was surmounting a physical impossibility of infinite density/zero volume attributed by theorists to stellar evolution insofar as the term equates to zero density/infinite volume or effectively a long-winded way to describe 'nothing/0'. It is like asking which longitude the North or South Pole exists in - whether all of them or none of them.

The tug of war between density and volume in a progenitor supernova star is exceptionally relevant and by using a specific geometry allied to efficiency seen throughout nature, it became possible to put the narrative together with the geometry back in 1990, at least as a work in progress.





 




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