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Daily 3632



 
 
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Old June 14th 04, 03:18 PM
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Default Daily 3632

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE - Continuing to collect World Class Science

DAILY REPORT # 3632

PERIOD COVERED: DOYs 163-165

OBSERVATIONS SCHEDULED

NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 9993

Cycle 12 NICMOS dark current, shading profile, and read noise
monitoring program

The purpose of this proposal is to monitor the dark current, read
noise, and shading profile for all three NICMOS detectors throughout
the duration of Cycle 12. This proposal is an essentially unchanged
continuation of PID 9636 which cover the duration of Cycle 11.

ACS/WFC 9902

The Evolution of the Host Galaxies of Radio-Quiet Quasars

Study of the host galaxies and environments of high redshift AGN is
proving a valuable probe of current theories of how galaxies form and
evolve. Results from our NICMOS imaging program have indicated that
the hosts of z ~ 2 -- 3 faint radio-quiet quasars {RQQ} have
luminosities only around local L*, making them similar to Lyman-break
field galaxies at the same redshifts, and to the low-z hosts RQQ
hosts. This is roughly consistent with theoretical predictions of
Kauffmann & Haehnelt {2000} for the hierarchical buildup of galaxy
hosts and their relation to their resident supermassive black holes.
The luminosity of the AGN in these RQQ is key to understanding this
relationship, however, and we are making a comprehensive archival HST
imaging study of the hosts of RQQs from low to high z at a range of
nuclear luminosities. At intermediate z, however, there are no studies
of the hosts of RQQs in the faint luminosity range that represents the
bulk of the quasar population. In the present proposal, we request
imaging at the same rest-wavelengths as our high-z sample of the hosts
of 10 similarly luminous RQQs at z ~ 0.9. These data will fill in an
important part of the parameter space defined by quasar luminosity and
redshift. Combined with existing HST data they will allow us to trace
the evolution of the hosts of RQQ and that of the relationship between
quasar luminosity and host galaxy luminosity.

STIS/CCD/MA1 9893

The field structure of the most strongly magnetized white dwarf
PG1031+234

With a maximum field strength of 1 GG PG1031+234 has the strongest
magnetic field found in any white dwarf. Since magnetic fields
generated on earth are limited to a few MG, this star is an important
cosmic laboratory to test the atomic data calculated for field
strengths which are similar to those in recycled millisecond pulsars.
Our aim is to take phase resolved FUV spectra covering the rotational
{spin} period of 204 minutes. The variation of the position and shape
of the Lyman alpha components is very important for a detailed mapping
of magnetic field topology, which is believed - according to an
analysis of the optical data - to consist of a general dipole field
with a polar field strength of 500 MG and a magnetic spot with a field
reaching 1 GG. Moreover, we will search for the forbidden 1s0 - 2s0
transition of hydrogen which would indicate the additional presence of
an electric field, and, for quasi-molecular features of hydrogen which
would provide constraints on the detailed temperature structure of the
atmosphere. It is also important to redetermine the effective
temperature with time resolved UV data, since an inconsistency between
the analysis of IUE spectrum {Teff aprox. 25000 K}, integrated over
one full rotational period, and the optical spectrum {15000 K} exists
which is also reflected in a large uncertainty of the mass
determination.

ACS/HRC 9869

X-ray-Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies: The Hidden Truth

Chandra has resolved most of the 2 keV X-ray background {XRB} into
discrete sources. Ground-based optical studies of these sources have
revealed a substantial population of apparently normal galaxies at
modest redshift, not the Seyfert 2 galaxies predicted by models for
the origin of the XRB. These objects have X-ray spectral properties
and luminosities similar to Seyfert 2s, but emission lines are weak or
absent in their starlight-dominated optical spectra, suggesting the
emergence of a new class of obscured or gas-poor AGNs at moderate
redshifts. However, most of the galaxies in question are distant
enough that their angular sizes are comparable to the slit widths used
in ground-based spectroscopic observations. Thus, it is possible that
these "normal" galaxies are classical Seyfert 2s whose nuclear
spectral features have been overwhelmed {"hidden"} by host galaxy
light. The high angular resolution of HST/STIS offers a unique
opportunity to isolate the nuclei of these objects spatially. STIS
spectra of a small, carefully selected sample of optically "normal"
X-ray galaxies will help clarify the origin of the XRB, which is vital
for understanding the growth of supermassive black holes in galactic
nuclei.

NIC/NIC3 9865

The NICMOS Parallel Observing Program

We propose to continue managing the NICMOS pure parallel program.
Based on our experience, we are well prepared to make optimal use of
the parallel opportunities. The improved sensitivity and efficiency of
our observations will substantially increase the number of
line-emitting galaxies detected. As our previous work has
demonstrated, the most frequently detected line is Halpha at
0.7z1.9, which provides an excellent measure of current star
formation rate. We will also detect star-forming and active galaxies
in other redshift ranges using other emission lines. The grism
observations will produce by far the best available Halpha luminosity
functions over the crucial--but poorly observed--redshift range where
galaxies appear to have assembled most of their stellar mass. This key
process of galaxy evolution needs to be studied with IR data; we found
that observations at shorter wavelengths appear to have missed a large
fraction of the star-formation in galaxies, due to dust reddening. We
will also obtain deep F110W and F160W images, to examine the space
densities and morphologies of faint red galaxies. In addition to
carrying out the public parallels, we will make the fully reduced and
calibrated images and spectra available on-line, with some
ground-based data for the deepest parallel fields included.

NIC2 9856

A near-IR imaging survey of submm galaxies with spectroscopic
redshifts

Submillimeter {submm} surveys with SCUBA have identified a population
of obscured star-forming and active galaxies at high redshift. Our
recent spectroscopic campaigns with the Keck-10m telescope have
uncovered redshifts for 37 SCUBA galaxies. The wide redshift range of
the radio identified submm population {z=1-4} implies that many
varieties of sources driven by different physical processes may be
selected in a submm survey. We propose to use HST-NICMOS, ACS to
obtain 2-filter images of a sample of 15 SCUBA galaxies with redshifts
spanning z=0.8-3.5. Our goal is to understand what physical process
{major mergers?} drive their strong evolution and great luminosities,
and what the implications are for galaxy evolution models.

STIS/CCD 9854

Anomalous Flux Ratios in Quadruple Gravitationally Lensed QSOs

We propose to observe eight {8} gravitationally lensed systems which
exhibit quadruple images of the background high redshift quasars.
Models invoking a smooth potential fit the observed image positions
accurately, in most cases better than 5 milliarcseconds. But the same
models dramatically fail to predict the observed flux ratios. These
anomalous flux ratios can be attributed to micro- or milli-lensing in
the massive lensing halo. In this proposal, we will isolate the source
of the anomalous flux ratios by using the superior resolution of
HST/STIS to obtain spectrophotometric data and compare the emission
line flux ratio of the QSOs to the continuum flux ratios. Due to the
much larger size of the broad emission line regions, the flux ratios
in the emission lines should only be affected by milli-lensing if the
sub-halos are comparable or larger in projected size than the source
region. That is, flux ratios observed in the QSO continuum are
sensitive to substructure on all scales {both micro- and
milli-lensing}, while the broad emission lines are insensitive to
micro-lensing due to the larger physical size of the source emission
region. This sample of eight quasars will provide the definitive
evidence to distinguish between possible sources causing the observed
anomalous flux ratios.

STIS 9786

The Next Generation Spectral Library

We propose to continue the Cycle 10 snapshot program to produce a Next
Generation Spectral Library of 600 stars for use in modeling the
integrated light of galaxies and clusters. This program is using the
low dispersion UV and optical gratings of STIS. The library will be
roughly equally divided among four metallicities, very low {[Fe/H] lt
-1.5}, low {[Fe/H] -1.5 to -0.5}, near-solar {[Fe/H] -0.3 to 0.1}, and
super-solar {[Fe/H] gt 0.2}, well-sampling the entire HR-diagram in
each bin. Such a library will surpass all extant compilations and have
lasting archival value, well into the Next Generation Space Telescope
era. Because of the universal utility and community-broad nature of
this venture, we waive the entire proprietary period.

ACS/HRC/WFC 9781

Galaxy Evolution in Action : The Detailed Morphology of Post-Starburst
Galaxy

If galaxies evolve morphologically, then some should be in transition
between late and early types. One proposed evolutionary mechanism is a
galaxy-galaxy merger, but evolved merger products are difficult to
find. Fortunately, spectroscopic surveys have now uncovered large
numbers of E+A galaxies, a class of objects whose post-starburst
spectra, current lack of HI gas, and pressure-supported kinematics
suggest that they are the missing panel that connects the "Toomre
sequence" of merging spirals with normal ellipticals and S0s. Our
first HST observations of five of these galaxies are intriguing. We
find a considerable range of tidally disturbed morphologies, an "E+A"
fundamental plane, significant differences among the color gradients
within 1 kpc {~0.8''}, and populations of bright, blue globular
clusters. These initial results are difficult to interpret, however,
because they are drawn from a small sample of galaxies whose very blue
overall colors may have selected a particular evolutionary path of
E+As. Here we propose for ACS imaging of the remaining 15 E+As from
the Las Campanas Redshift Survey to probe the full range of E+A
properties. The proposed observations will allow us to 1} determine
what fraction of the interactions that lead to E+As destroy all
disk-like structures {and therefore necessarily lead to elliptical
formation}, 2} measure the inner color gradients and constrain the
spatial distribution of stars produced as gas sinks to the center
during a merger, and 3} determine whether these interactions produce
globular clusters in the required numbers to account for the increased
specific frequency of clusters in early-type galaxies.

ACS/WFC 9779

Giant Lya Halos Around High Redshift Radio Galaxies

We propose to use the ACS + ramp filter to image the morphologies of
several high redshift, giant Lya emission line halos associated with
radio galaxies. High redshift radio galaxies are the likely precursors
of the most massive elliptical galaxies known today. There is
increasing evidence that they are forming in the centers of giant
halos in overdense galaxy regions or `protoclusters'. The halos
provide a unique diagnostic to study the formation of these massive
galaxies and determine the importance of AGN/starburst feedback during
this process. The capability of HST to resolve fine detail is
essential for the interpretation of their complex morphologies. Our
targets have also a number of Lya excess galaxies near the halos which
fall within the field-of-view of the ACS + ramp filters. Our images
will resolve these systems and we will investigate whether there is
morphological evidence for starburst outflows. Starburst winds have
been proposed as a source of heat and chemical enrichment for
protoclusters, which may significantly affect their evolution.

ACS/WFC/WFPC2 9774

Young Massive Clusters in Spiral Galaxies and the Connection with Open
Clusters

We propose to carry out a census of star clusters in the disks of the
nearby spiral galaxies NGC 45, NGC 1313, NGC 4395, NGC 5236 and NGC
7793. Using ACS, we will identify much fainter and older star clusters
than possible in previous ground-based surveys, or even in HST imaging
of more distant galaxies. For the first time, we will directly explore
the connection between young "massive'' {or "super''} star clusters
{YMCs} and lower-mass "open'' clusters in different star forming
environments. We will test the universality of the luminosity- and
mass functions of stellar clusters and establish whether the presence
of YMCs is a result of a top-heavy cluster luminosity function, or
follows from generally richer cluster systems. Our target galaxies
span a range of morphological properties, surface brightness and star
formation rate. Some of them are known from ground-based studies to
host large numbers of YMCs while others have more modest cluster
populations. However, previous ground-based data were restricted to
luminous clusters younger than about 500 Myr. Here we will extend the
search to clusters formed throughout the entire lifetime of each
galaxy and reach clusters with properties typical of the Milky Way
open clusters. This will allow us to close the gap between studies of
extragalactic and Galactic disk clusters.

STIS/CCD/MA1 9736

Integrated Absorption- and Emission-Line Analysis of Nebulae

Serious discrepancies have arisen in CNONe abundance determinations
for galactic nebulae in the past ten years depending upon which type
of emission lines are used in the analysis: forbidden vs. permitted
lines. The cause of the discrepancies, which can exceed an order of
magnitude for some PNe, has been studied intensively but is still
unknown. Emission line abundances cannot be considered reliable until
the nature of these contradictory results is understood. We have
developed a technique for integrating absorption lines into emission
analyses for diffuse nebulae that provides an independent check on the
validity of emission-line analyses. It requires high resolution
observations of UV resonance absorption produced by the nebular gas in
imbedded or background stars together with optical spectra of the
nebulae. We propose to obtain UV spectra of four PNe central stars
with STIS that will provide data necessary to exploit the new
technique of integrated abundance determination that combines both
emission and absorption lines.

ACS/HRC/WFC 9728

Tracing the History of Cosmic Expansion to z~2 with Type Ia Supernovae

Type Ia supernovae {SNe Ia} provide the only direct evidence for an
accelerating universe, an extraordinary result that needs the most
rigorous test. The case for cosmic acceleration rests on the
observation that SNe Ia at z = 0.5 are about 0.25 mag fainter than
they would be in a universe without acceleration. A powerful and
straightforward way to assess the reliability of the SN Ia measurement
and the conceptual framework of its interpretation is to look for
cosmic deceleration at z 1. This would be a clear signature of a
mixed dark-matter and dark-energy universe. Systematic errors in the
SNe Ia result attributed to grey dust or cosmic evolution of the SN Ia
peak luminosity would not show this change of sign. We have obtained a
toehold on this putative ``epoch of deceleration'' with SN 1997ff at z
= 1.7, and 3 more at z 1 from our Cycle 11 program, all found and
followed by HST. However, this is too important a test to rest on just
a few objects, anyone of which could be subject to a lensed
line-of-sight or misidentification. Here we propose to extend our
measurement with observations of twelve SNe Ia in the range 1.0 z
1.5 or 6 such SNe Ia and 1 ultradistant SN Ia at z = 2, that will be
discovered as a byproduct from proposed Treasury and DD programs.
These objects will provide a much firmer foundation for a conclusion
that touches on important questions of fundamental physics.

NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 8792

NICMOS Post-SAA calibration - CR Persistence Part 3

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of
NICMOS. Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA
contour 23, and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50
minutes of coming out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in
parallel in all three NICMOS Cameras. The POST-SAA darks will be
non-standard reference files available to users with a USEAFTER
date/time mark. The keyword 'USEAFTER=date/time' will also be added to
the header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword must be populated
with the time, in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8
times per day so each POST-SAA DARK will need to have the appropriate
time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both the raw
and processed images will be archived as POST-SAA DARKSs. Generally we
expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within
50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to remove the CR
persistence from the science images. Each observation will need its
own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the
NICMOS detectors.

WFPC2 10079

Geometric distortion of F255W for WFPC2 Cycle 12

The goal of astrometric calibration of the HST WFPC2 is to obtain a
coordinate system free of distortion down to the precision level of 1
mas. That precision is necessary for future astrometric work {e.g., on
proper motions} involving a combination of the archival WFPC2 and
recent ACS images. So far such a calibration has only been obtained
for the wide bandpass F555W filter {Anderson and King, 2003}. Recently
V. Kozhurina-Platais {ISR, 2003-002} has expanded the analysis of the
geometric distortion of WFPC2 as a function of wavelength for two
other broadband filters, {F814W and F300W}, and has also established
the plate scale and skew parameters {non-perpendicularity of X and Y
axes} for these filters. This study points to the importance of
astrometric calibration at wavelengths shorter than ~400 nanometers.
This proposal seeks observations in the FUV filter F255W of the Inner
Calibration Field in the globular cluster omega Cen. It is expected
that the amount of distortion in the F255W filter with respect to the
F555W filter will be higher by 5% but this must be established from
observations. A total of four astrometric calibrations in F255W
{proposed here}, and F300W, F555, F814W {already completed} will allow
us to interpolate such a calibration for any other filter from FUV to
near infrared.

WFPC2 10071

WFPC2 CYCLE 12 Supplemental Darks Part 3/3

This dark calibration program obtains 3 dark frames every day to
provide data for monitoring and characterizing the evolution of hot
pixels.

ACS/HRC/WFC 10060

CCD Daily Monitor

This program consists of basic tests to monitor, the read noise, the
development of hot pixels and test for any source of noise in ACS CCD
detectors. This programme will be executed once a day for the entire
lifetime of ACS.

ACS/HRC 10050

ACS Earth Flats

High signal sky flats will be obtained by observing the bright Earth
with the HRC and WFC. These observations will be used to verify the
accuracy of the flats currently used by the pipeline and will provide
a comparison with flats derived via other techniques: L-flats from
stellar observations, sky flats from stacked GO observations, and
internal flats using the calibration lamps. Weekly coronographic
monitoring is required to assess the changing position of the spots.

STIS/CCD 10020

CCD Bias Monitor - Part 2

Monitor the bias in the 1x1, 1x2, 2x1, and 2x2 bin settings at gain=1,
and 1x1 at gain = 4, to build up high-S/N superbiases and track the
evolution of hot columns.

STIS/CCD 10018

CCD Dark Monitor-Part 2

Monitor the darks for the STIS CCD.

FLIGHT OPERATIONS SUMMARY:

Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary
reports of potential non-nominal performance that will be
investigated.) None

COMPLETED OPS REQs: None

OPS NOTES EXECUTED: None

SCHEDULED SUCCESSFUL FAILURE TIMES
FGS
GSacq 22 22
FGS REacq 20 20
FHST Update 37 37
LOSS of LOCK

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS:

SMS SA166O01 ends at a non-nominal time of 172/22:00Z to accommodate
science visits across the nominal end boundary.


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