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Daily Rpt #4448



 
 
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Old September 17th 07, 03:40 PM posted to sci.astro.hubble
Bassford, Lynn
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Posts: 44
Default Daily Rpt #4448

Notice: Due to the conversion of some ACS WFC or HRC observations into
WFPC2, or NICMOS observations after the loss of ACS CCD science capability
in January, there may be an occasional discrepancy between a proposal's
listed (and correct) instrument usage and the abstract that follows it.

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE - Continuing to collect World Class Science

DAILY REPORT # 4448

PERIOD COVERED: UT September 14, 15 & 16, 2007 (DOY 257, 258 & 259)

OBSERVATIONS SCHEDULED

NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 8794

NICMOS Post-SAA calibration - CR Persistence Part 5

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of NICMOS.
Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA contour 23,
and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50 minutes of coming
out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in parallel in all three NICMOS
Cameras. The POST-SAA darks will be non- standard reference files available
to users with a USEAFTER date/time mark. The keyword 'USEAFTER=date/time'
will also be added to the header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword
must be populated with the time, in addition to the date, because HST
crosses the SAA ~8 times per day so each POST-SAA DARK will need to have the
appropriate time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both
the raw and processed images will be archived as POST-SAA DARKs. Generally
we expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within 50
minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to remove the CR persistence
from the science images. Each observation will need its own CRMAP, as
different SAA passages leave different imprints on the NICMOS detectors.

ACS/SBC 11225

The Wavelength Dependence of Accretion Disk Structure

We can now routinely measure the size of quasar accretion disks using
gravitational microlensing of lensed quasars. The next step to testing
accretion disk models is to measure the size of accretion disks as a
function of wavelength, particularly at the UV and X-ray wavelengths that
should probe the inner, strong gravity regime. Here we focus on two
four-image quasar lenses that already have optical {R band} and X-ray size
measurements using microlensing. We will combine the HST observations with
ground-based monitoring to measure the disk size as a function of wavelength
from the near-IR to the UV. We require HST to measure the image flux ratios
in the ultraviolet continuum near the Lyman limit of the quasars. The
selected targets have estimated black hole masses that differ by an order of
magnitude, and we should find wavelength scalings for the two systems that
are very different because the Blue/UV wavelengths should correspond to
parts of the disk near the inner edge for the high mass system but not in
the low mass system. The results will be modeled using a combination of
simple thin disk models and complete relativistic disk models. While
requiring only 18 orbits, success for one system requires observations in
both Cycles 16 and 17.

WFPC2 11217

The Light Echoes around V838 Monocerotis

V838 Monocerotis, which burst upon the astronomical scene in early 2002, is
a completely unanticipated new object. It underwent a large-amplitude and
very luminous outburst, during which its spectrum remained that of an
extremely cool supergiant. A rapidly evolving set of light echoes around
V838 Mon was discovered soon after the outburst, and quickly became the most
spectacular display of the phenomenon ever seen. These light echoes provide
the means to accomplish three unique types of measurements based on
continued HST imaging during the event: {1} Study effects of MHD turbulence
at high resolution and in 3 dimensions; {2} Construct the first unambiguous
and fully 3-D map of a circumstellar dust envelope in the Milky Way; {3}
Study dust physics in a unique setting where the spectrum and light curve of
the illumination, and the scattering angle, are unambiguously known. We have
also used our HST data to determine the distance to V838 Mon through direct
geometric techniques. Because of the extreme rarity of light echoes, this is
almost certainly the only opportunity to achieve such results during the
lifetime of HST. We propose two visits during Cycle 16, in order to continue
the mapping of the circumstellar dust and to accomplish the other goals
listed above.

WFPC2 11203

A Search for Circumstellar Disks and Planetary-Mass Companions around Brown
Dwarfs in Taurus

During a 1-orbit program in Cycle 14, we used WFPC2 to obtain the first
direct image of a circumstellar disk around a brown dwarf. These data have
provided fundamental new constraints on the formation process of brown
dwarfs and the properties of their disks. To search for additional direct
detections of disks around brown dwarfs and to search for planetary-mass
companions to these objects, we propose a WFPC2 survey of 32 brown dwarfs in
the Taurus star-forming region.

WFPC2 11202

The Structure of Early-type Galaxies: 0.1-100 Effective Radii

The structure, formation and evolution of early-type galaxies is still
largely an open problem in cosmology: how does the Universe evolve from
large linear scales dominated by dark matter to the highly non-linear scales
of galaxies, where baryons and dark matter both play important, interacting,
roles? To understand the complex physical processes involved in their
formation scenario, and why they have the tight scaling relations that we
observe today {e.g. the Fundamental Plane}, it is critically important not
only to understand their stellar structure, but also their dark-matter
distribution from the smallest to the largest scales. Over the last three
years the SLACS collaboration has developed a toolbox to tackle these issues
in a unique and encompassing way by combining new non-parametric strong
lensing techniques, stellar dynamics, and most recently weak gravitational
lensing, with high-quality Hubble Space Telescope imaging and VLT/Keck
spectroscopic data of early-type lens systems. This allows us to break
degeneracies that are inherent to each of these techniques separately and
probe the mass structure of early-type galaxies from 0.1 to 100 effective
radii. The large dynamic range to which lensing is sensitive allows us both
to probe the clumpy substructure of these galaxies, as well as their
low-density outer haloes. These methods have convincingly been demonstrated,
by our team, using smaller pilot-samples of SLACS lens systems with HST
data. In this proposal, we request observing time with WFPC2 and NICMOS to
observe 53 strong lens systems from SLACS, to obtain complete multi-color
imaging for each system. This would bring the total number of SLACS lens
systems to 87 with completed HST imaging and effectively doubles the known
number of galaxy-scale strong lenses. The deep HST images enable us to fully
exploit our new techniques, beat down low-number statistics, and probe the
structure and evolution of early-type galaxies, not only with a uniform
data-set an order of magnitude larger than what is available now, but also
with a fully coherent and self-consistent methodological approach!

NIC2 11155

Dust Grain Evolution in Herbig Ae Stars: NICMOS Coronagraphic Imaging and
Polarimetry

We propose to take advantage of the sensitive coronagraphic capabilities of
NICMOS to obtain multiwavelength coronagraphic imaging and polarimetry of
primordial dust disks around young intermediate-mass stars {Herbig Ae
stars}, in order to advance our understanding of how dust grains are
assembled into larger bodies. Because the polarization of scattered light is
strongly dependent on scattering particle size and composition,
coronagraphic imaging polarimetry with NICMOS provides a uniquely powerful
tool for measuring grain properties in spatially resolved circumstellar
disks. It is widely believed that planets form via the gradual accretion of
planetesimals in gas-rich, dusty circumstellar disks, but the connection
between this suspected process and the circumstellar disks that we can now
observe around other stars remains very uncertain. Our proposed
observations, together with powerful 3-D radiative transfer codes, will
enable us to quantitatively determine dust grain properties as a function of
location within disks, and thus to test whether dust grains around young
stars are in fact growing in size during the putative planet-formation
epoch. HST imaging polarimetry of Herbig Ae stars will complement and extend
existing polarimetric studies of disks around lower-mass T Tauri stars and
debris disks around older main-sequence stars. When combined with these
previous studies, the proposed research will help us establish the influence
of stellar mass on the growth of dust grains into larger planetesimals, and
ultimately to planets. Our results will also let us calibrate models of the
thermal emission from these disks, a critical need for validating the
properties of more distant disks inferred on the basis of spectral
information alone.

WFPC2 11128

Time Scales Of Bulge Formation In Nearby Galaxies

Traditionally, bulges are thought to fit well into galaxy formation models
of hierarchical merging. However, it is now becoming well established that
many bulges formed through internal, secular evolution of the disk rather
than through mergers. We call these objects pseudobulges. Much is still
unknown about pseudobulges, the most pressing questions being: How, exactly,
do they build up their mass? How long does it take? And, how many exist? We
are after an answer to these questions. If pseudobulges form and evolve over
longer periods than the time between mergers, then a significant population
of pseudobulges is hard to explain within current galaxy formation theories.
A pseudobulge indicates that a galaxy has most likely not undergone a major
merger since the formation of the disk. The ages of pseudobulges give us an
estimate for the time scale of this quiescent evolution. We propose to use
24 orbits of HST time to complete UBVIH imaging on a sample of 33 nearby
galaxies that we have observed with Spitzer in the mid-IR. These data will
be used to measure spatially resolved stellar population parameters {mean
stellar age, metallicity, and star formation history}; comparing ages to
star formation rates allows us to accurately constrain the time scale of
pseudobulge formation. Our sample of bulges includes both pseudo- and
classical bulges, and evenly samples barred and unbarred galaxies. Most of
our sample is imaged, 13 have complete UBVIH coverage; we merely ask to
complete missing observations so that we may construct a uniform sample for
studying bulge formation. We also wish to compare the stellar population
parameters to a variety of bulge and global galaxy properties including star
formation rates, dynamics, internal bulge morphology, structure from
bulge-disk decompositions, and gas content. Much of this data set is already
or is being assembled. This will allow us to derive methods of pseudobulge
identification that can be used to accurately count pseudobulges in large
surveys. Aside from our own science goals, we will present this broad set of
data to the community. Thus, we waive proprietary periods for all
observations.


NIC2 11101

The Relevance of Mergers for Fueling AGNs: Answers from QSO Host
Galaxies

The majority of QSOs are known to reside in centers of galaxies that look
like ellipticals. Numerical simulations have shown that remnants of galaxy
mergers often closely resemble elliptical galaxies. However, it is still
strongly debated whether the majority of QSO host galaxies are indeed the
result of relatively recent mergers or whether they are completely analogous
to inactive ellipticals to which nothing interesting has happened recently.
To address this question, we recently obtained deep HST ACS images for five
QSO host galaxies that were classified morphologically as ellipticals
{GO-10421}. This pilot study revealed striking signs of tidal interactions
such as ripples, tidal tails, and warped disks that were not detected in
previous studies. Our observations show that at least some "elliptical" QSO
host galaxies are the products of relatively recent merger events rather
than old galaxies formed at high redshift. However, the question remains
whether the host galaxies of classical QSOs are truly distinct from inactive
ellipticals and whether there is a connection between the merger events we
detect and the current nuclear activity. We must therefore place our results
into a larger statistical context. We are currently conducting an HST
archival study of inactive elliptical galaxies {AR-10941} to form a control
sample. We now propose to obtain deep HST/WFPC2 images of 13 QSOs whose host
galaxies are classified as normal ellipticals. Comparing the results for
both samples will help us determine whether classical QSOs reside in normal
elliptical galaxies or not. Our recent pilot study of five QSOs indicates
that we can expect exciting results and deep insights into the host galaxy
morphology also for this larger sample of QSOs. A statistically meaningful
sample will help us determine the true fraction of QSO hosts that suffered
strong tidal interactions and thus, whether a merger is indeed a requirement
to trigger nuclear activity in the most luminous AGNs. In addition to our
primary science observations with WFPC2, we will obtain NICMOS3 parallel
observations with the overall goal to select and characterize galaxy
populations at high redshifts. The imaging will be among the deepest NICMOS
images: These NICMOS images are expected to go to a limit a little over 1
magnitude brighter than HUDF-NICMOS data, but over 13 widely separated
fields, with a total area about 1.5 times larger than HUDF-NICMOS. This
separation means that the survey will tend to average out effects of cosmic
variance. The NICMOS3 images will have sufficient resolution for an initial
characterization of galaxy morphologies, which is currently one of the most
active and promising areas in approaching the problem of the formation of
the first massive galaxies. The depth and area coverage of our proposed
NICMOS observations will also allow a careful study of the mass function of
galaxies at these redshifts. This provides a large and unbiased sample,
selected in terms of stellar mass and unaffected by cosmic variance, to
study the on-going star formation activity as a function of mass {i.e.
integrated star formation} at this very important epoch.

NIC3 11080

Exploring the Scaling Laws of Star Formation

As a variety of surveys of the local and distant Universe are approaching a
full census of galaxy populations, our attention needs to turn towards
understanding and quantifying the physical mechanisms that trigger and
regulate the large-scale star formation rates {SFRs} in galaxies.

WFPC2 11079

Treasury Imaging of Star Forming Regions in the Local Group:
Complementing the GALEX and NOAO Surveys

We propose to use WFPC2 to image the most interesting star-forming regions
in the Local Group galaxies, to resolve their young stellar populations. We
will use a set of filters including F170W, which is critical to detect and
characterize the most massive stars, to whose hot temperatures colors at
longer wavelengths are not sensitive. WFPC2's field of view ideally matches
the typical size of the star-forming regions, and its spatial resolution
allows us to measure individual stars, given the proximity of these
galaxies. The resulting H-R diagrams will enable studies of star-formation
properties in these regions, which cover largely differing metallicities {a
factor of 17, compared to the factor of 4 explored so far} and
characteristics. The results will further our understanding of the
star-formation process, of the interplay between massive stars and
environment, the properties of dust, and will provide the key to interpret
integrated measurements of star-formation indicators {UV, IR, Halpha}
available for several hundreds more distant galaxies. Our recent deep
surveys of these galaxies with GALEX {FUV, NUV} and ground-based imaging
{UBVRI, Halpha, [OIII] and [SII]} provided the identification of the most
relevant SF sites. In addition to our scientific analysis, we will provide
catalogs of HST photometry in 6 bands, matched corollary ground-based data,
and UV, Halpha and IR integrated measurements of the associations, for
comparison of integrated star-formation indices to the resolved populations.
We envisage an EPO component.

NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 11060

NICMOS Photometric Stability Monitoring

This NICMOS calibration proposal carries out photometric monitoring
observations during Cycle 15. The format is the same as the Cycle 14 version
of the program {10725}, but a few modifications were made with respect to
the Cycle 12 program 9995 and Cycle 13 program 10381. Provisions had to be
made to adopt to 2-gyro mode {G191B2B was added as extra target to provide
target visibility through most of the year}. Where before 4 or 7 dithers
were made in a filter before we moved to the next filter, now we observe all
filters at one position before moving to the next dither position. While the
previous method was chosen to minimize the effect of persistence, we now
realize that persistence may be connected to charge trapping and by moving
through the filter such that the count rate increases, we reach equilibrium
more quickly between charge being trapped and released. We have also
increased exposure times where possible to reduce the charge trapping non-
linearity effects.

WFPC2 11038

Narrow Band and Ramp Filter Closeout

These observations are to improve calibration of narrow band and ramp
filters. We also test for changes in the filter properties during WFPC2's 14
years on-board HST.

FGS 10928

Calibrating Cosmological Chronometers: White Dwarf Masses

We propose to use HST/FGS1R to determine White Dwarf {WD} masses. The
unmatched resolving power of HST/FGS1R will be utilized to follow up four
selected WD binary pairs. This high precision obtained with HST/FGS1R simply
cannot be equaled by any ground based technique. This proposed effort
complements that done by CoI Nelan in which a sample of WDs is being
observed with HST/FGS1R. This proposal will dramatically increase the number
of WDs for which dynamical mass measurements are possible, enabling a better
calibration of the WD mass-radius relation, cooling curves, initial to final
mass relations, and ultimately giving important clues to the star formation
history of our Galaxy and the age of its disk as well as in other galaxies.

NIC3 10921

Tangential Velocities of Objects in the Orion Nebula and Locating the
Embedded Outflow Sources.

The Orion Nebula is arguably the Rosetta Stone for studying a very young
star cluster and how the radiation and outflowing plasma from its stars
interact with ambient material. It has been the subject of numerous HST
imaging studies, which means that there is good opportunity for determining
tangential velocities by obtaining second epoch images during Cycle 15,
which may be the last cycle for which the WFPC2 is available. These
velocities in the plane-of-the-sky will allow us to determine the patterns
of outflow from micro-jets smaller than the Solar System to jet driven
shocks more than a parsec from their sources. Combined with radial
velocities, we'll obtain spatial velocities, which are critical to
determining where the embedded sources are located that produce the numerous
HH objects coming from the Orion-S and BN-KL regions. We'll also be able to
determine the physics that is operating in the LL Ori type of outflows
{where a bipolar jet is being distorted by a slow wind coming from the
nebula}. We will also be able to search for runaway stars caused by the
disintegration of young multiple-star systems. All of this is possible
because the long-time base of the WFPC2 and ACS observations allow a new
level of astrometric precision to be obtained and to be done efficiently by
making coordinated parallel observations with all images.

NIC1 10889

The Nature of the Halos and Thick Disks of Spiral Galaxies

We propose to resolve the extra-planar stellar populations of the thick
disks and halos of seven nearby, massive, edge-on galaxies using ACS,
NICMOS, and WFPC2 in parallel. These observations will provide accurate star
counts and color-magnitude diagrams 1.5 magnitudes below the tip of the Red
Giant Branch sampled along the two principal axes and one intermediate axis
of each galaxy. We will measure the metallicity distribution functions and
stellar density profiles from star counts down to very low average surface
brightnesses, equivalent to ~32 V-mag per square arcsec. These observations
will provide the definitive HST study of extra-planar stellar populations of
spiral galaxies. Our targets cover a range in galaxy mass, luminosity, and
morphology and as function of these galaxy properties we will provide: - The
first systematic study of the radial and isophotal shapes of the diffuse
stellar halos of spiral galaxies - The most detailed comparative study to
date of thick disk morphologies and stellar populations - A comprehensive
analysis of halo and thick disk metallicity distributions as a function of
galaxy type and position within the galaxy. - A sensitive search for tidal
streams - The first opportunity to directly relate globular cluster systems
to their field stellar population We will use these fossil records of the
galaxy assembly process preserved in the old stellar populations to test
halo and thick disk formation models within the hierarchical galaxy
formation scheme. We will test LambdaCDM predictions on sub-galactic scales,
where it is difficult to test using CMB and galaxy redshift surveys, and
where it faces its most serious difficulties.

ACS/SBC 10872

Lyman Continuum Emission in Galaxies at z=1.2

Lyman continuum photons produced in massive starbursts may have played a
dominant role in the reionization of the Universe. Starbursts are important
contributors to the ionizing metagalactic background at lower redshifts as
well. However, their contribution to the background depends upon the
fraction of ionizing radiation that escapes from the intrinsic opacity of
galaxies below the Lyman limit. Current surveys suggest escape fractions of
a few percent, up to 10%, with very few detections {as opposed to upper
limits} having been reported. No detections have been reported in the epochs
between z=0.1 and z=2. We propose to measure the fraction of escaping Lyman
continuum radiation from 15 luminous z~1.2 galaxies in the GOODS fields.
Using the tremendous sensitivity of the ACS Solar- blind Channel, we will
reach AB=30 mag., allowing us to detect an escape fraction of 1%. We will
correlate the amount of escaping radiation with the photometric and
morphological properties of the galaxies. A non-detection in all sources
would imply that QSOs provide the overwhelming majority of ionizing
radiation at z=1.3, and it would strongly indicate that the properties of
galaxies at higher redshift have to be significantly different for galaxies
to dominate reionization. The deep FUV images will also be useful for
extending the FUV study of other galaxies in the GOODS fields.

ACS/SBC 10864

Mapping the Gaseous Content of Protoplanetary and Young Planetary
Systems with ACS

One of the key problems in planetary system formation is understanding how
rapidly, and over what time interval Jovian planets can form. Dust in the
protoplanetary disk is critical in planetesimal formation, but it is the gas
which produces giant planets, and which is essential for their migration.
However, compared to data on the circumstellar dust, information on the gas
component is sparse, especially in the planet-formation zone. This severely
limits our ability to put observational constraints on giant planet
formation, except to note that the process must be largely complete by 12
Myr, given the paucity of Herbig Ae or classical T Tauri stars older than
10-12 Myr. In the FUV, photo-excited molecular hydrogen transitions have the
requisite contrast to the stellar photosphere, accretion shock, and
reflection nebulosity, and can be traced 50-100 AU from the exciting stars
in both envelopes and outflow cavities and protoplanetary disks. Central
disk cavities, an expected consequence of planet formation, larger than 0.1"
are directly detectable in HST FUV spectra, while smaller cavities may be
detected by comparison with protoplanetary disks which are still accreting
onto their stars. We propose augmenting existing HST coronagraphic imagery
of 6 Herbig Fe and T Tauri disks with ACS Solar-Blind Channel Lyman alpha
imagery and slitless spectroscopy simultaneously sampling the disk in
molecular hydrogen and small-grain reflection nebulosity. These data will be
used to quantify the amount of vertical stratification in these disks, to
map the mass-loss geometry from the star, and to determine whether removal
of molecular material precedes, lags, or is contemporary with clearing of
the dust.

NIC2 10527

Imaging Scattered Light from Debris Disks Discovered by the Spitzer Space
Telescope Around 20 Sun-like Stars

We propose to use the high contrast capability of the NICMOS coronagraph to
image a sample of newly discovered circumstellar disks associated with
sun-like stars. These systems were identified by their strong thermal
infrared emission with the Spitzer Space Telescope as part of the Spitzer
Legacy Science program titled, "The Formation and Evolution of Planetary
Systems {FEPS}." Modelling of the thermal excess emission in the form of
spectral energy distributions alone cannot distinguish between narrowly
confined high opacity disks and broadly distributed, low opacity disks.
However, our proposed NICMOS observations can, by imaging the light
scattered from this material. Even non- detections will place severe
constraints on the disk geometry, ruling out models with high optical depth.
Unlike previous disk imaging programs, our program contains a well defined
sample of solar mass stars covering a range of ages from ~10Myrs to a few
Gyrs, allowing us to study the evolution of disks from primordial to debris
for the first time. These results will greatly improve our understanding of
debris disks around Sun-like stars at stellar ages nearly 10x older than any
previous investigation. Thus we will have fit a crucial piece into the
puzzle concerning the formation and evolution of our own solar system.

NIC2 10487

A Search for Debris Disks in the Coeval Beta Pictoris Moving Group

Resolved observations of debris disks present us with the opportunity of
studying planetary evolution in other solar systems. We propose to search
for debris disks in the Beta Pictoris moving group {8-20 Myrs, 10-50 pc
away} , which provides a coeval sample of multiple spectral types, and it
has already produced two magnificent resolved debris disks: AU Mic and Beta
Pic. Such coeval sample will provide us with a snapshop of the crucial time
in disk evolution in which the disk makes the transition from optically
thick to optically thin, and it will be useful to study the stellar mass
dependence of the disk evolution.


FLIGHT OPERATIONS SUMMARY:

Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary reports of
potential non-nominal performance that will be investigated.

HSTARS:

10993 - REACQ(1,2,2) failed, scan step limit exceeded on FGS 1

REACQ(1,2,2) at 257/20:50:56 failed due to scan step limit exceeded on FGS 1
at 22:55:06. Initial GSACQ(1,2,2) at 21:17:23 was successful.

10994 - GSAcq(2,1,1) failed to RGA Hold (Gyro Control)

Upon acquisition of signal (AOS) at 260/01:50:01, the GSAcq(2,1,1) scheduled
at 260/01:39:25 - 01:47:29 had failed to RGA Hold due to a Search Radius
Limit Exceeded Error on FGS-2. Pre-acquisition OBADs attitude correction
values not available due to LOS. Post-acq OBAD/MAP has (RSS) value of 66.26
arcseconds.

Subsequent REacq(2,1,1) at 260/04:50:04 failed to RGA Hold due to a Search
Radius Limit Exceeded Error on FGS-2. REacqs at 260/0314:51, 260/06:28:38
were successful.

COMPLETED OPS REQUEST: (None)

COMPLETED OPS NOTES: (None)

SCHEDULED SUCCESSFUL
FGS GSacq 18 17
FGS REacq 24 22
OBAD with Maneuver 82 82

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS:

Flash Report: NICMOS Defocus Test

The 1st observation for the NICMOS on-orbit PAM defocus test was
successfully completed Thursday. STScI has performed a quick-look analysis
of the science data and they are happy with the initial results. A second
flash report will be sent out after the second set of observations.

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