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Daily Rpt #4477

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Old October 29th 07, 02:15 PM posted to sci.astro.hubble
Bassford, Lynn
external usenet poster
Posts: 44
Default Daily Rpt #4477

Notice: Due to the conversion of some ACS WFC or HRC observations into
WFPC2, or NICMOS observations after the loss of ACS CCD science
capability in January, there may be an occasional discrepancy between
a proposal's listed (and correct) instrument usage and the abstract
that follows it.

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE - Continuing to collect World Class Science

DAILY REPORT*** # 4477

PERIOD COVERED: UT October 26, 27 & 28 2007 (DOY 299,300,301)


NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 8794

NICMOS Post-SAA calibration - CR Persistence Part 5

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of
NICMOS. Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA
contour 23, and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50
minutes of coming out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in
parallel in all three NICMOS Cameras. The POST-SAA darks will be non-
standard reference files available to users with a USEAFTER date/time
mark. The keyword 'USEAFTER=date/time' will also be added to the
header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword must be populated with
the time, in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8
times per day so each POST-SAA DARK will need to have the appropriate
time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both the raw
and processed images will be archived as POST-SAA DARKs. Generally we
expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within
50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to remove the CR
persistence from the science images. Each observation will need its
own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the
NICMOS detectors.

WFPC2 11296

HST Observations of Astrophysically Important Visual Binaries

This is a continuation of a project begun in Cycle 7 and continued up
through Cycle 14. The program consists of annual FGS or WFPC2
observations of three visual binary stars that will yield fundamental
astrophysical results, once their orbits and masses are determined.
Our targets are the following: {1} Procyon {P = 40.9 yr}, for which
our first WFPC2 images yielded an extremely accurate angular
separation of the bright F star and its much fainter white-dwarf
companion. Combined with ground-based astrometry of the bright star,
our observation significantly revised downward the derived masses, and
brought Procyon A into much better agreement with theoretical
evolutionary masses for the first time. With the continued monitoring
proposed here, we will obtain masses to an accuracy of better than 1%,
providing a testbed for theories of both Sun-like stars and white
dwarfs. {2} G 107-70, a close double white dwarf {P = 18.5 yr} that
promises to add two accurate masses to the tiny handful of white-dwarf
masses that are directly known from dynamical measurements. {3} Mu Cas
{P = 20.8 yr}, a famous nearby metal-deficient G dwarf for which
accurate masses will lead to the stars' helium contents, with
cosmological implications. For all three stars, we will also be
setting increasingly stringent limits on the presence of planetary-
mass bodies in the systems.

WFPC2 11289

SL2S: The Strong Lensing Legacy Survey

Recent systematic surveys of strong galaxy-galaxy lenses {CLASS,
SLACS, GOODS, etc.} are producing spectacular results for galaxy
masses roughly below a transition mass M~10^13 Mo. The observed lens
properties and their evolution up to z~0.2, consistent with numerical
simulations, can be described by isothermal elliptical potentials. In
contrast, modeling of giant arcs in X-ray luminous clusters {halo
masses M ~10^13 Mo} favors NFW mass profiles, suggesting that dark
matter halos are not significantly affected by baryon cooling. Until
recently, lensing surveys were neither deep nor extended enough to
probe the intermediate mass density regime, which is fundamental for
understanding the assembly of structures. The CFHT Legacy Survey now
covers 125 square degrees, and thus offers a large reservoir of strong
lenses probing a large range of mass densities up to z~1. We have
extracted a list of 150 strong lenses using the most recent CFHTLS
data release via automated procedures. Following our first SNAPSHOT
proposal in cycle 15, we propose to continue the Hubble follow-up
targeting a larger list of 130 lensing candidates. These are
intermediate mass range candidates {between galaxies and clusters}
that are selected in the redshift range of 0.2-1 with no a priori
X-ray selection. The HST resolution is necessary for confirming the
lensing candidates, accurate modeling of the lenses, and probing the
total mass concentration in galaxy groups up to z~1 with the largest
unbiased sample available to date.

WFPC2 11229

SEEDS: The Search for Evolution of Emission from Dust in Supernovae
with HST and

The role that massive stars play in the dust content of the Universe
is extremely uncertain. It has long been hypothesized that dust can
condense within the ejecta of supernovae {SNe}, however there is a
frustrating discrepancy between the amounts of dust found in the early
Universe, or predicted by nucleation theory, and inferred from SN
observations. Our SEEDS collaboration has been carefully revisiting
the observational case for dust formation by core-collapse SNe, in
order to quantify their role as dust contributors in the early
Universe. As dust condenses in expanding SN ejecta, it will increase
in optical depth, producing three simultaneously observable phenomena:
{1} increasing optical extinction; {2} infrared {IR} excesses; and {3}
asymmetric blue-shifted emission lines. Our SEEDS collaboration
recently reported all three phenomena occurring in SN2003gd,
demonstrating the success of our observing strategy, and permitting us
to derive a dust mass of up to 0.02 solar masses created in the SN. To
advance our understanding of the origin and evolution of the
interstellar dust in galaxies, we propose to use HST's WFPC2 and
NICMOS instruments plus Spitzer's photometric instruments to monitor
ten recent core- collapse SNe for dust formation and, as a bonus,
detect light echoes that can affect the dust mass estimates. These
space-borne observations will be supplemented by ground- based
spectroscopic monitoring of their optical emission line profiles.
These observations would continue our 2-year HST and Spitzer
monitoring of this phenomena in order to address two key questions: Do
all SNe produce dust? and How much dust do they produce? As all the SN
are within 15 Mpc, each SN stands an excellent chance of detection
with HST and Spitzer and of resolving potential light echoes.

FGS 11212

Filling the Period Gap for Massive Binaries

The current census of binaries among the massive O-type stars is
seriously incomplete for systems in the period range from years to
millennia because the radial velocity variations are too small and the
angular separations too close for easy detection. Here we propose to
discover binaries in this observational gap through a Faint Guidance
Sensor SNAP survey of relatively bright targets listed in the Galactic
O Star Catalog. Our primary goal is to determine the binary frequency
among those in the cluster/association, field, and runaway groups. The
results will help us assess the role of binaries in massive star
formation and in the processes that lead to the ejection of massive
stars from their natal clusters. The program will also lead to the
identification of new, close binaries that will be targets of long
term spectroscopic and high angular resolution observations to
determine their masses and distances. The results will also be
important for the interpretation of the spectra of suspected and newly
identified binary and multiple systems.

FGS 11211

An Astrometric Calibration of Population II Distance Indicators

In 2002 HST produced a highly precise parallax for RR Lyrae. That
measurement resulted in an absolute magnitude, M{V}= 0.61+/-0.11, a
useful result, judged by the over ten refereed citations each year
since. It is, however, unsatisfactory to have the direct,
parallax-based, distance scale of Population II variables based on a
single star. We propose, therefore, to obtain the parallaxes of four
additional RR Lyrae stars and two Population II Cepheids, or W Vir
stars. The Population II Cepheids lie with the RR Lyrae stars on a
common K-band Period-Luminosity relation. Using these parallaxes to
inform that relationship, we anticipate a zero-point error of 0.04
magnitude. This result should greatly strengthen confidence in the
Population II distance scale and increase our understanding of RR
Lyrae star and Pop II Cepheid astrophysics.

WFPC2 11203

A Search for Circumstellar Disks and Planetary-Mass Companions around
Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

During a 1-orbit program in Cycle 14, we used WFPC2 to obtain the
first direct image of a circumstellar disk around a brown dwarf. These
data have provided fundamental new constraints on the formation
process of brown dwarfs and the properties of their disks. To search
for additional direct detections of disks around brown dwarfs and to
search for planetary-mass companions to these objects, we propose a
WFPC2 survey of 32 brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region.

NIC2 11197

Sweeping Away the Dust: Reliable Dark Energy with an Infrared Hubble

We propose building a high-z Hubble Diagram using type Ia supernovae
observed in the infrared rest-frame J-band. The infrared has a number
of exceptional properties. The effect of dust extinction is minimal,
reducing a major systematic that may be biasing dark energy
measurements. Also, recent work indicates that type Ia supernovae are
true standard candles in the infrared meaning that our Hubble diagram
will be resistant to possible evolution in the Phillip's relation over
cosmic time. High signal-to-noise measurements of 16 type Ia events at
z~0.4 will be compared with an independent optical Hubble diagram from
the ESSENCE project to test for a shift in the derived dark energy
equation of state due to a systematic bias. In Cycle 15 we obtained
NICMOS photometry of 8 ESSENCE supernovae and are awaiting template
observations to place them on the IR Hubble diagram. Here we request
another 8 supernovae be studied in the final season of the ESSENCE
search. Because of the bright sky background, H-band photometry of
z~0.4 supernovae is not feasible from the ground. Only the superb
image quality and dark infrared sky seen by HST makes this test
possible. This experiment may also lead to a better, more reliable way
of mapping the expansion history of the universe with the Joint Dark
Energy Mission.

WFPC2 11194

Beyond the Bullet: Direct Detection of Dark Matter in Merging Galaxy

Our comparison of the distribution of baryons {stars and gas} and mass
{from weak lensing} in the "Bullet" Cluster has recently yielded
concrete evidence for dark matter independent of basic assumptions
regarding the nature of the gravitational force. The one incomplete
aspect of the argument relates to potential, although highly unlikely,
coincidences {special alignments along the line of sight, and/or
fortuitous canceling in non- standard gravitational models} that can
always be invoked against results derived from the study of one
object. Therefore, we propose to complete this line of investigation
by increasing the size of our sample with observations of an
additional cluster. Here we propose to obtain HST WFPC2 imaging
mosaics around the cores of the cluster to detect at high significance
if the weak gravitational lensing mass peaks are routinely displaced
from the X-ray plasma clouds and aligned with the galaxy
concentrations in interacting clusters. With a relatively modest
allocation of time, we seek to complete a significant step toward the
eventual resolution of the dark matter question.

WFPC2 11178

Probing Solar System History with Orbits, Masses, and Colors of
Transneptunian Binaries

The recent discovery of numerous transneptunian binaries {TNBs} opens
a window into dynamical conditions in the protoplanetary disk where
they formed as well as the history of subsequent events which sculpted
the outer Solar System and emplaced them onto their present day
heliocentric orbits. To date, at least 47 TNBs have been discovered,
but only about a dozen have had their mutual orbits and separate
colors determined, frustrating their use to investigate numerous
important scientific questions. The current shortage of data
especially cripples scientific investigations requiring statistical
comparisons among the ensemble characteristics. We propose to obtain
sufficient astrometry and photometry of 23 TNBs to compute their
mutual orbits and system masses and to determine separate primary and
secondary colors, roughly tripling the sample for which this
information is known, as well as extending it to include systems of
two near-equal size bodies. To make the most efficient possible use of
HST, we will use a Monte Carlo technique to optimally schedule our

WFPC2 11170

UV Imaging of the Martian Corona and the Escape of Hydrogen

ACS SBC UV imaging observations of Mars are proposed to study the
extended hydrogen corona, with application to the escape of hydrogen
and the history of water on Mars. These observations will be scheduled
when Mars is distant from the Earth, so that a field of view of +/-
4-5 Mars radii can be obtained to image the full range of the highly
extended martian hydrogen corona through its H Ly alpha emission. The
observations will also be obtained when the Sun-Earth-Mars angle is
close to 90 degrees, so that any asymmetry along the Mars-Sun line can
be observed. The observed 2-dimensional brightness distribution will
be related to local density using two existing radiative transfer
codes, and the upward flux and velocity distributions will be
determined by comparison with runs from an exospheric distribution
model. These observations, combined with simultaneous Ly alpha
observations by the SPICAM instrument on Mars Express from within the
atmosphere, will provide the first tight constraints on the total
escape flux and importance of nonthermal processes on the rate of

WFPC2 11169

Collisions in the Kuiper belt

For most of the 15 year history of observations of Kuiper belt
objects, it has been speculated that impacts must have played a major
role in shaping the physical and chemical characteristics of these
objects, yet little direct evidence of the effects of such impacts has
been seen. The past 18 months, however, have seen an explosion of
major new discoveries giving some of the first insights into the
influence of this critical process. From a diversity of observations
we have been led to the hypotheses that: {1} satellite- forming
impacts must have been common in the Kuiper belt; {2} such impacts led
to significant chemical modification; and {3} the outcomes of these
impacts are sufficiently predictable that we can now find and study
these impact-derived systems by the chemical and physical attributes
of both the satellites and the primaries. If our picture is correct,
we now have in hand for the first time a set of incredibly powerful
tools to study the frequency and outcome of collisions in the outer
solar system. Here we propose three linked projects that would answer
questions critical to the multiple prongs of our hypothesis. In these
projects we will study the chemical effects of collisions through
spectrophotometric observations of collisionally formed satellites and
through the search for additional satellites around primaries with
potential impact signatures, and we will study the physical effects of
impacts through the examination of tidal evolution in proposed impact
systems. The intensive HST program that we propose here will allow us
to fully test our new hypotheses and will provide the ability to
obtain the first extensive insights into outer solar system impact

WFPC2 11130

AGNs with Intermediate-mass Black Holes: Testing the Black Hole-Bulge
Paradigm, Part II

The recent progress in the study of central black holes in galactic
nuclei has led to a general consensus that supermassive {10^6-10^9
solar mass} black holes are closely connected with the formation and
evolutionary history of large galaxies, especially their bulge
component. Two outstanding issues, however, remain unresolved. Can
central black holes form in the absence of a bulge? And does the mass
function of central black holes extend below 10^6 solar masses?
Intermediate-mass black holes {10^6 solar masses}, if they exist, may
offer important clues to the nature of the seeds of supermassive black
holes. Using the SDSS, our group has successfully uncovered a new
population of AGNs with intermediate-mass black holes that reside in
low-luminosity galaxies. However, very little is known about the
detailed morphologies or structural parameters of the host galaxies
themselves, including the crucial question of whether they have bulges
or not. Surprisingly, the majority of the targets of our Cycle 14
pilot program have structural properties similar to dwarf elliptical
galaxies. The statistics from this initial study, however, are really
too sparse to reach definitive conclusions on this important new class
of black holes. We wish to extend this study to a larger sample, by
using the Snapshot mode to obtain WFPC2 F814W images from a parent
sample of 175 AGNs with intermediate-mass black holes selected from
our final SDSS search. We are particularly keen to determine whether
the hosts contain bulges, and if so, how the fundamental plane
properties of the host depend on the mass of their central black
holes. We will also investigate the environment of this unique class
of AGNs.

WFPC2 11128

Time Scales Of Bulge Formation In Nearby Galaxies

Traditionally, bulges are thought to fit well into galaxy formation
models of hierarchical merging. However, it is now becoming well
established that many bulges formed through internal, secular
evolution of the disk rather than through mergers. We call these
objects pseudobulges. Much is still unknown about pseudobulges, the
most pressing questions being: How, exactly, do they build up their
mass? How long does it take? And, how many exist? We are after an
answer to these questions. If pseudobulges form and evolve over longer
periods than the time between mergers, then a significant population
of pseudobulges is hard to explain within current galaxy formation
theories. A pseudobulge indicates that a galaxy has most likely not
undergone a major merger since the formation of the disk. The ages of
pseudobulges give us an estimate for the time scale of this quiescent
evolution. We propose to use 24 orbits of HST time to complete UBVIH
imaging on a sample of 33 nearby galaxies that we have observed with
Spitzer in the mid-IR. These data will be used to measure spatially
resolved stellar population parameters {mean stellar age, metallicity,
and star formation history}; comparing ages to star formation rates
allows us to accurately constrain the time scale of pseudobulge
formation. Our sample of bulges includes both pseudo- and classical
bulges, and evenly samples barred and unbarred galaxies. Most of our
sample is imaged, 13 have complete UBVIH coverage; we merely ask to
complete missing observations so that we may construct a uniform
sample for studying bulge formation. We also wish to compare the
stellar population parameters to a variety of bulge and global galaxy
properties including star formation rates, dynamics, internal bulge
morphology, structure from bulge-disk decompositions, and gas content.
Much of this data set is already or is being assembled. This will
allow us to derive methods of pseudobulge identification that can be
used to accurately count pseudobulges in large surveys. Aside from our
own science goals, we will present this broad set of data to the
community. Thus, we waive proprietary periods for all observations.

NIC3 11082

NICMOS Imaging of GOODS: Probing the Evolution of the Earliest Massive
Galaxies, Galaxies Beyond Reionization, and the High Redshift Obscured

(uses ACS/SBC and WFPC2)

Deep near-infrared imaging provides the only avenue towards
understanding a host of astrophysical problems, including: finding
galaxies and AGN at z 7, the evolution of the most massive galaxies,
the triggering of star formation in dusty galaxies, and revealing
properties of obscured AGN. As such, we propose to observe 60 selected
areas of the GOODS North and South fields with NICMOS Camera 3 in the
F160W band pointed at known massive M 10^11 M_0 galaxies at z 2
discovered through deep Spitzer imaging. The depth we will reach {26.5
AB at 5 sigma} in H_160 allows us to study the internal properties of
these galaxies, including their sizes and morphologies, and to
understand how scaling relations such as the Kormendy relationship
evolved. Although NIC3 is out of focus and undersampled, it is
currently our best opportunity to study these galaxies, while also
sampling enough area to perform a general NIR survey 1/3 the size of
an ACS GOODS field. These data will be a significant resource,
invaluable for many other science goals, including discovering high
redshift galaxies at z 7, the evolution of galaxies onto the Hubble
sequence, as well as examining obscured AGN and dusty star formation
at z 1.5. The GOODS fields are the natural location for HST to
perform a deep NICMOS imaging program, as extensive data from space
and ground based observatories such as Chandra, GALEX, Spitzer, NOAO,
Keck, Subaru, VLT, JCMT, and the VLA are currently available for these
regions. Deep high-resolution near-infrared observations are the one
missing ingredient to this survey, filling in an important gap to
create the deepest, largest, and most uniform data set for studying
the faint and distant universe. The importance of these images will
increase with time as new facilities come on line, most notably WFC3
and ALMA, and for the planning of future JWST observations.

WFPC2 11022

WFPC2 Cycle 15 Decontaminations and Associated Observations

This proposal is for the WFPC2 decons. Also included are instrument
monitors tied to decons: photometric stability check, focus monitor,
pre- and post-decon internals {bias, intflats, kspots, & darks}, UV
throughput check, VISFLAT sweep, and internal UV flat check.

FGS 11018

Long Term Stability of FGS1r in Position Mode

It is known from our experience with FGS3, and later with FGS1r, that
an FGS on orbit experiences long term evolution, presumably due to
disorption of water from the instrument's graphite epoxy composites.
This manifests principally as a change in the plate scale and
secondarily as a change in the geometric distortions. These effects
are well modeled by adjustments to the rhoA and kA parameters which
are used to transform the star selector servo angles into FGS {x, y}
detector space coordinates. By observing the relative positions of
selected stars in a standard cluster at a fixed telescope pointing and
orientation, the evolution of rhoA and kA can be monitored and
calibrated to preserve the astrometric performance of FGS1r.


Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary
reports of potential non-nominal performance that will be


11041 REacq(2,1,2) failed to RGA Hold (Gyro Control) @ 301/0713z

Upon acquisition of signal at 301/07:51:14, the REacq(2,1,2) had
failed to RGA Hold due to a stop flag indication on FGS-2. Prior guide
star acquisition at 301/05:39:08 was successful. Pre-acq OBADs were
not scheduled. The spacecraft remained in (T2GAttHd).Post-acquisition
OBAD/MAP at 301/07:21:25 had (RSS) value of 21.42 arcseconds. OBAD
correction could not be performed prior to REacq at 301/08:49:44 due
to LOS. REacq(2,1,2) at 301/08:49:44 was successful.



*************************** SCHEDULED***** SUCCESSFUL
FGS GSacq***************** 28**************** 28
FGS REacq***************** 14**************** 13
OBAD with Maneuver*** 74**************** 74



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