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Daily Report #5176

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Old September 8th 10, 04:39 PM posted to sci.astro.hubble
Cooper, Joe
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Posts: 568
Default Daily Report #5176

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE - Continuing to Collect World Class Science


PERIOD COVERED: 5am September 7 - 5am September 8, 2010 (DOY 250/09:00z-251/09:00z)


Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary
reports of potential non-nominal performance that will be

HSTARS: (None)



FGS GSAcq 04 04
FGS REAcq 11 11
OBAD with Maneuver 04 04



ACS/WFC 12210

SLACS for the Masses: Extending Strong Lensing to Lower Masses and
Smaller Radii

Strong gravitational lensing provides the most accurate possible
measurement of mass in the central regions of early-type galaxies
(ETGs). We propose to continue the highly productive Sloan Lens ACS
(SLACS) Survey for strong gravitational lens galaxies by observing a
substantial fraction of 135 new ETG gravitational-lens candidates with
HST-ACS WFC F814W Snapshot imaging. The proposed target sample has
been selected from the seventh and final data release of the Sloan
Digital Sky Survey, and is designed to complement the distribution of
previously confirmed SLACS lenses in lens-galaxy mass and in the ratio
of Einstein radius to optical half-light radius. The observations we
propose will lead to a combined SLACS sample covering nearly two
decades in mass, with dense mapping of enclosed mass as a function of
radius out to the half-light radius and beyond. With this longer mass
baseline, we will extend our lensing and dynamical analysis of the
mass structure and scaling relations of ETGs to galaxies of
significantly lower mass, and directly test for a transition in
structural and dark-matter content trends at intermediate galaxy mass.
The broader mass coverage will also enable us to make a direct
connection to the structure of well-studied nearby ETGs as deduced
from dynamical modeling of their line-of-sight velocity distribution
fields. Finally, the combined sample will allow a more conclusive test
of the current SLACS result that the intrinsic scatter in ETG
mass-density structure is not significantly correlated with any other
galaxy observables. The final SLACS sample at the conclusion of this
program will comprise approximately 130 lenses with known foreground
and background redshifts, and is likely to be the largest confirmed
sample of strong-lens galaxies for many years to come.

COS/FUV 11686

The Cosmological Impact of AGN Outflows: Measuring Absolute Abundances
and Kinetic Luminosities

AGN outflows are increasingly invoked as a major contributor to the
formation and evolution of supermassive black holes, their host
galaxies, the surrounding IGM, and cluster cooling flows. Our HST/COS
proposal will determine reliable absolute chemical abundances in six
AGN outflows, which influences several of the processes mentioned
above. To date there is only one such determination, done by our team
on Mrk 279 using 16 HST/STIS orbits and 100 ksec of FUSE time. The
advent of COS and its high sensitivity allows us to choose among
fainter objects at redshifts high enough to preclude the need for
FUSE. This will allow us to determine the absolute abundances for six
AGN (all fainter than Mrk 279) using only 40 HST COS orbits. This will
put abundances studies in AGN on a firm footing, an elusive goal for
the past four decades. In addition, prior FUSE observations of four of
these targets indicate that it is probable that the COS observations
will detect troughs from excited levels of C III. These will allow us
to measure the distances of the outflows and thereby determine their
kinetic luminosity, a major goal in AGN feedback research.

We will use our state of the art column density extraction methods and
velocity-dependent photoionization models to determine the abundances
and kinetic luminosity. Previous AGN outflow projects suffered from
the constraints of deciding what science we could do using ONE of the
handful of bright targets that were observable. With COS we can choose
the best sample for our experiment. As an added bonus, most of the
spectral range of our targets has not been observed previously,
greatly increasing the discovery phase space.


Probing the Outer Regions of M31 with QSO Absorption Lines

We propose HST-COS spectroscopy of 10 quasars behind M31. Absorption
lines due to MgII, FeII, CIV, and a variety of other lines will be
searched for and measured. Six quasars lie between 1 and 4.2 Holmberg
radii near the major axis on the southwest side, where confusion with
Milky Way gas is minimized. Two lie even farther out on the southwest
side of the major axis. One lies within 1 Holmberg radius. Two of the
10 pass through M31's high velocity clouds seen in a detailed 21 cm
emission map. Exposure time estimates were based on SDSS magnitudes
and available GALEX magnitudes. Thus, using the most well-studied
external spiral galaxy in the sky, our observations will permit us to
check, better than ever before, the standard picture that quasar
metal-line absorption systems such as MgII and CIV arise in an
extended gaseous halo/disk of a galaxy well beyond its observable
optical radius. The observations will yield insights into the nature
of the gas and its connection to the very extended stellar components
of M31 that have recently been studied. Notably the observations have
the potential of extending M31's rotation curve to very large
galactocentric distances, thereby placing new constraints on M31's
dark matter halo.

Finally, we also request that the coordinated parallel orbits be
allocated to this program so that we may image the resolved stellar
content of M31's halo and outer disk.


Probing Warm-Hot Intergalactic Gas at 0.5 z 1.3 with a Blind
Survey for O VI, Ne VIII, Mg X, and Si XII Absorption Systems

Currently we can only account for half of the baryons (or less)
expected to be found in the nearby universe based on D/H and CMB
observations. This "missing baryons problem" is one of the
highest-priority challenges in observational extragalatic astronomy.
Cosmological simulations suggest that the baryons are hidden in
low-density, shock-heated intergalactic gas in the log T = 5 - 7
range, but intensive UV and X-ray surveys using O VI, O VII, and O
VIII absorption lines have not yet confirmed this prediction. We
propose to use COS to carry out a sensitive survey for Ne VIII and Mg
X absorption in the spectra of nine QSOs at z(QSO) 0.89. For the
three highest-redshift QSOs, we will also search for Si XII. This
survey will provide more robust constraints on the quantity of baryons
in warm-hot intergalactic gas at 0.5 z 1.3, and the data will
provide rich constraints on the metal enrichment, physical conditions,
and nature of a wide variety of QSO absorbers in addition to the
warm-hot systems. By comparing the results to other surveys at lower
redshifts (with STIS, FUSE, and from the COS GTO programs), the
project will also enable the first study of how these absorbers evolve
with redshift at z 1. By combining the program with follow-up galaxy
redshift surveys, we will also push the study of galaxy-absorber
relationships to higher redshifts, with an emphasis on the
distribution of the WHIM with respect to the large-scale matter
distribution of the universe.

STIS/CCD 11845

CCD Dark Monitor Part 2

Monitor the darks for the STIS CCD.

STIS/CCD 11847

CCD Bias Monitor-Part 2

Monitor the bias in the 1x1, 1x2, 2x1, and 2x2 bin settings at gain=1,
and 1x1 at gain = 4, to build up high-S/N superbiases and track the
evolution of hot columns.

STIS/CCD 11849

STIS CCD Hot Pixel Annealing

This purpose of this activity is to repair radiation induced hot pixel
damage to the STIS CCD by warming the CCD to the ambient instrument
temperature and annealing radiation-damaged pixels.

Radiation damage creates hot pixels in the STIS CCD Detector. Many of
these hot pixels can be repaired by warming the CCD from its normal
operating temperature near -83 deg. C to the ambient instrument
temperature (~ +5 deg. C) for several hours. The number of hot pixels
repaired is a function of annealing temperature. The effectiveness of
the CCD hot pixel annealing process is assessed by measuring the dark
current behavior before and after annealing and by searching for any
window contamination effects.

STIS/MA2 11862


This program will obtain NUV-MAMA observations of the STIS internal
Deuterium lamp to construct an NUV flat applicable to all NUV modes.

WFC3/IR 11696

Infrared Survey of Star Formation Across Cosmic Time

We propose to use the unique power of WFC3 slitless spectroscopy to
measure the evolution of cosmic star formation from the end of the
reionization epoch at z6 to the close of the galaxy-building era at
z~0.3.Pure parallel observations with the grisms have proven to be
efficient for identifying line emission from galaxies across a broad
range of redshifts. The G102 grism on WFC3 was designed to extend this
capability to search for Ly-alpha emission from the first galaxies.
Using up to 250 orbits of pure parallel WFC3 spectroscopy, we will
observe about 40 deep (4-5 orbit) fields with the combination of G102
and G141, and about 20 shallow (2-3 orbit) fields with G141 alone.

Our primary science goals at the highest redshifts a (1) Detect Lya
in ~100 galaxies with z5.6 and measure the evolution of the Lya
luminosity function, independent of of cosmic variance; 2) Determine
the connection between emission line selected and continuum-break
selected galaxies at these high redshifts, and 3) Search for the
proposed signature of neutral hydrogen absorption at re-ionization. At
intermediate redshifts we will (4) Detect more than 1000 galaxies in
Halpha at 0.5z1.8 to measure the evolution of the
extinction-corrected star formation density across the peak epoch of
star formation. This is over an order-of-magnitude improvement in the
current statistics, from the NICMOS Parallel grism survey. (5) Trace
``cosmic downsizing" from 0.5z2.2; and (6) Estimate the evolution in
reddening and metallicty in star-forming galaxies and measure the
evolution of the Seyfert population. For hundreds of spectra we will
be able to measure one or even two line pair ratios -- in particular,
the Balmer decrement and [OII]/[OIII] are sensitive to gas reddening
and metallicity. As a bonus, the G102 grism offers the possibility of
detecting Lya emission at z=7-8.8.

To identify single-line Lya emitters, we will exploit the wide
0.8--1.9um wavelength coverage of the combined G102+G141 spectra. All
[OII] and [OIII] interlopers detected in G102 will be reliably
separated from true LAEs by the detection of at least one strong line
in the G141 spectrum, without the need for any ancillary data. We
waive all proprietary rights to our data and will make high-level data
products available through the ST/ECF.


Formation and Evolution of Massive Galaxies in the Richest
Environments at 1.5 z 2.0

We propose to image seven 1.5z2 clusters and groups from the IRAC
Shallow Cluster Survey with WFC3 and ACS in order to study the
formation and evolution of massive galaxies in the richest
environments in the Universe in this important redshift range. We will
measure the evolution of the sizes and morphologies of massive cluster
galaxies, as a function of redshift, richness, radius and local
density. In combination with allocated Keck spectroscopy, we will
directly measure the dry merger fraction in these clusters, as well as
the evolution of Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) over this redshift
range where clear model predictions can be confronted. Finally we will
measure both the epoch of formation of the stellar populations and the
assembly history of that stellar mass, the two key parameters in the
modern galaxy formation paradigm.

WFC3/IR/S/C 11929

IR Dark Current Monitor

Analyses of ground test data showed that dark current signals are more
reliably removed from science data using darks taken with the same
exposure sequences as the science data, than with a single dark
current image scaled by desired exposure time. Therefore, dark current
images must be collected using all sample sequences that will be used
in science observations. These observations will be used to monitor
changes in the dark current of the WFC3-IR channel on a day-to-day
basis, and to build calibration dark current ramps for each of the
sample sequences to be used by Gos in Cycle 17. For each sample
sequence/array size combination, a median ramp will be created and
delivered to the calibration database system (CDBS).

WFC3/UV/IR 12234

Differentiation in the Kuiper belt: a Search for Silicates on Icy

We currently have a large on-going program (Go Program 11644, 120
orbits) to exploit the superb stability and photometric
characteristics of HST and the broad range in wavelength coverage of
the WFC3 to make broad-band vis/IR spectral observations of a large
sample of Kuiper belt objects. Though the survey is currently only
~50% complete, the quality and unprecedented signal-to-noise of these
observations has revealed the existence of a previously undiscovered
spectral variability not explainable within our current understanding
of these objects.

A possible explanation for this variability is that with this faint
set of Kuiper belt objects, we are beginning to see the difference
between larger differentiated objects and smaller non-differentiated
objects. Its seems that the small and likely undifferentiated objects
are exhibiting silicate features that affect our photometry - features
not exhibited by the icy mantles of larger icy bodies.

We propose a small add-on survey to dramatically increase the
scientific results of our large program. The proposed observations
will use the proven capabilities of WFC3 to make broad and narrow-band
photometric observations to detect spectral features in the 1.0-1.3
micron range of a small subset of our sources. The 13 targets have
been carefully selected to cover the range of spectral variability
detected in our large program as well as sample the entire dynamical
range and physical sizes of these targets. These observations will
allow the identification of undifferentiated Kuiper belt objects by
detection of their silicate features. As a probe for differentiation,
these observations could constrain the natal locations of different
Kuiper belt classes, a constraint currently unavailable to formation
models. This small set of observations will allow the calibration of
the spectral variability seen in our large program, and drastically
enhance the scientific output of our full Cycle 17 sample.

WFC3/UVIS 11905

WFC3 UVIS CCD Daily Monitor

The behavior of the WFC3 UVIS CCD will be monitored daily with a set
of full-frame, four-amp bias and dark frames. A smaller set of 2Kx4K
subarray biases are acquired at less frequent intervals throughout the
cycle to support subarray science observations. The internals from
this proposal, along with those from the anneal procedure (Proposal
11909), will be used to generate the necessary superbias and superdark
reference files for the calibration pipeline (CDBS).

WFC3/UVIS 11908

Cycle 17: UVIS Bowtie Monitor

Ground testing revealed an intermittent hysteresis type effect in the
UVIS detector (both CCDs) at the level of ~1%, lasting hours to days.
Initially found via an unexpected bowtie- shaped feature in flatfield
ratios, subsequent lab tests on similar e2v devices have since shown
that it is also present as simply an overall offset across the entire
CCD, i.e., a QE offset without any discernable pattern. These lab
tests have further revealed that overexposing the detector to count
levels several times full well fills the traps and effectively
neutralizes the bowtie. Each visit in this proposal acquires a set of
three 3x3 binned internal flatfields: the first unsaturated image will
be used to detect any bowtie, the second, highly exposed image will
neutralize the bowtie if it is present, and the final image will allow
for verification that the bowtie is gone.

WFC3/UVIS/IR 11644

A Dynamical-Compositional Survey of the Kuiper Belt: A New Window Into
the Formation of the Outer Solar System

The eight planets overwhelmingly dominate the solar system by mass,
but their small numbers, coupled with their stochastic pasts, make it
impossible to construct a unique formation history from the dynamical
or compositional characteristics of them alone. In contrast, the huge
numbers of small bodies scattered throughout and even beyond the
planets, while insignificant by mass, provide an almost unlimited
number of probes of the statistical conditions, history, and
interactions in the solar system. To date, attempts to understand the
formation and evolution of the Kuiper Belt have largely been dynamical
simulations where a hypothesized starting condition is evolved under
the gravitational influence of the early giant planets and an attempt
is made to reproduce the current observed populations. With little
compositional information known for the real Kuiper Belt, the test
particles in the simulation are free to have any formation location
and history as long as they end at the correct point. Allowing
compositional information to guide and constrain the formation,
thermal, and collisional histories of these objects would add an
entire new dimension to our understanding of the evolution of the
outer solar system. While ground based compositional studies have hit
their flux limits already with only a few objects sampled, we propose
to exploit the new capabilities of WFC3 to perform the first ever
large-scale dynamical-compositional study of Kuiper Belt Objects
(KBOs) and their progeny to study the chemical, dynamical, and
collisional history of the region of the giant planets. The
sensitivity of the WFC3 observations will allow us to go up to two
magnitudes deeper than our ground based studies, allowing us the
capability of optimally selecting a target list for a large survey
rather than simply taking the few objects that can be measured, as we
have had to do to date. We have carefully constructed a sample of 120
objects which provides both overall breadth, for a general
understanding of these objects, plus a large enough number of objects
in the individual dynamical subclass to allow detailed comparison
between and within these groups. These objects will likely define the
core Kuiper Belt compositional sample for years to come. While we have
many specific results anticipated to come from this survey, as with
any project where the field is rich, our current knowledge level is
low, and a new instrument suddenly appears which can exploit vastly
larger segments of the population, the potential for discovery -- both
anticipated and not -- is extraordinary.


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