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Maverick Scientist and Instrument Builder James Westphal Dies
Maverick Scientist and Instrument Builder James Westphal Dies
September 14, 2004
PASADENA- James A. Westphal, who parlayed a bachelor's degree into a
major scientific career as a professor at Caltech, a leader of one of
the original instrument teams on the Hubble Space Telescope, the
director of Palomar Observatory, and the co-discoverer of intricacies in
the mechanisms that drive Old Faithful, died Wednesday, September 8,
after a long illness. He was 74.
A native of Dubuque, Iowa, Westphal earned his bachelor's degree in
physics from the University of Tulsa in 1954, a year after he went to
work as geophysical research group leader at Sinclair Research Lab in
Tulsa. In 1961 he took a job as senior engineer at Caltech and remained
at the Institute for the remainder of his career. He was named associate
professor of planetary science in 1971 and professor in 1976.
Westphal's mechanical genius was arguably the linchpin of many of the
projects he took on after arriving at Caltech. Once explaining that his
mechanical skills were hereditary--his father having been "a shade-tree
mechanic of the first order"--Westphal first got into the business of
scientific instrumentation right after high school, when he did
well-logging in Texas and Gulf Coast oil fields. In fact, his work at
Sinclair Research Labs involved devising unorthodox methods for oil
discovery, and one of his discoveries of a new way of processing seismic
data first brought him to the attention of Caltech professor Hewitt Dix,
who is often considered the father of exploration geophysics.
Westphal arrived at Caltech initially on a four-month leave of absence
to devise a data processor for Dix, but never left. He discovered that
the academic freedom individual professors enjoy was amenable to his own
predilections, so he soon began branching out to other areas of
scientific investigation at Caltech. Before long, he had teamed up with
Bruce Murray (later to become director of the Jet Propulsion Lab) to do
thermal infrared scans of the moon in order to see if humans could even
walk on the lunar surface without sinking below the surface. Westphal
and Murray's work showed that rocky areas could be identified with the
thermal imaging, which in turn led to the inference that the Apollo
astronauts could safely walk on the dirt without sinking. Westphal and
Murray also teamed up to do the first infrared imaging of Venus and Jupiter.
"He was the most talented instrument designer I ever knew at Caltech or
at JPL," Murray said today. "That's why he could move through so many
fields: he could figure out what was needed, and how to build it simply
Other projects at Caltech led to Westphal's being hired on permanently
by Bob Sharp, who at the time was the geology division chairman.
Westphal once said that he at first thought he was over his head at
Caltech, but after deciding that everyone working at the Institute felt
the same way, gave up his position at Sinclair and moved permanently to
In the following years Westphal involved himself in novel ways of
studying Mount St. Helens volcanism, a way of creating a high-pressure
aquarium for studies of deep-ocean animals, and instruments for tracking
glacial ice flows and capturing starlight.
Caltech astronomers were pleased to discover that Westphal had an idea
for a night-vision camera for the historic 200-inch Hale Telescope-at
the time the largest optical telescope in the world-that could measure
the brightness of galaxies with 20 times greater accuracy than possible
up to that time. He built various instruments for the Hale Telescope,
including a Silicon Intensified Target camera, which was a sort of
transitional device between the photographic emulsion plates of the day
and modern charged-coupled devices (CCDs) and which produced pictures
with unparalleled clarity. The instrument is now in the Smithsonian's
National Air and Space Museum's collection.
Westphal and Jim Gunn (now at Princeton) recognized early that CCDs
would revolutionize astronomy, and in the process of obtaining them for
Palomar became involved in the planning of the Hubble Space Telescope.
Westphal was later named principal investigator of the Space Telescope's
Wide-Field and Planetary Camera, which proved to be an enormously
successful part of the telescope's scientific mission. Westphal's
instrument was used to diagnose the spherical aberration in the main
94-inch mirror, which caused the Hubble's initial focusing problems.
Once the Hubble was safely in orbit, Westphal and his collaborators
began receiving data on a regular basis. One of the early images of
distant galaxies provided especially compelling evidence for the
phenomenon known as gravitational lensing. "When this picture came in,"
Westphal said in a 1995 interview for Caltech's Engineering and Science
magazine, "I put it under [Caltech physicist] Kip Thorne's door with a
note saying, 'If you ever have any doubt about gravitational lenses,
here's your proof.'"
Already a tenured faculty member and the author of scores of refereed
journal articles, and the creator of 15 patented inventions, Westphal
was named director of Palomar Observatory in 1995 and served for three
years. In 1997 he published a paper with Caltech's Sue Kieffer after
lowering one of his custom-designed instruments into Old Faithful at
Yellowstone National Park to study the geyser's cycling mechanism. The
work, which received a good deal of media attention, confirmed previous
assumptions about the geyser and also uncovered new details about the
Westphal took emeritus status in 1998, but remained active in research
endeavors until recently. Survivors include his wife, Jean Westphal of
Altadena; a son, Andrew Westphal, a daughter-in-law, Kim Taylor, and two
granddaughters, Theresa and Laura Westphal, all of Richmond, California;
two stepdaughters, Robin Stroll of Agoura Hills, California and Susan
Stroll of Eagle Rock, California; and an uncle, Eddy Westphal of Indiana.