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Water: the Substance That Overcomes the Second Law of Thermodynamics



 
 
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  #1  
Old February 12th 19, 11:18 AM posted to sci.astro
Pentcho Valev
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Default Water: the Substance That Overcomes the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Nature 2002: "Researchers have shown for the first time that, on the level of thousands of atoms and molecules, fleeting energy increases violate the second law of thermodynamics. [...] Denis J. Evans and colleagues [...] measured water molecules' influence the motion of tiny latex beads held between lasers. They found that over periods of time less than two seconds, variations in the random thermal motion of water molecules occasionally gave individual beads a kick. This increased the beads' kinetic energy by a small but significant amount, in apparent violation of the second law." http://www.nature.com/news/2002/0207...s020722-2.html

A kick involving "thousands of atoms and molecules" suggests the presence of a factor somehow organizing water and prompting it to behave in this way. This factor is the electrical field created by the laser beam:

"A deviation from the second law of thermodynamics has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time. [...] ...the electric field in the laser beam." http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/...efy-second-law

In an electric field, water undergoes turbulent motion powered by ambient heat. This obvious violation of the second law of thermodynamics is unacceptable to scientists so they prefer to remain silent or refer to the liberation of some mysterious "stored energy":

"What we had missed was that, in liquids there exists an intrinsic disequilibrium which continuously drives the system around within a big basin of possible configurations; and water is again exceptional. When we apply the electric field, we perturb the dynamics and change the shape of the attractor basin. This in turn changes the flow of energy through the system and may even liberate stored energy that is inaccessible when the liquid is in the ground state." https://www.wetsus.nl/home/wetsus-ne...n-innovation/1

A simple model will make things quite clear. Triply distilled water in the floating-water-bridge system undergoes turbulent motion:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_c...&v=17UD1goTFhQ

The motion can do work, e.g. by rotating a waterwheel. This work will be done at the expense of

(A) electric energy?

(B) ambient heat?

The correct answer is (B) - the second law of thermodynamics is false.

Note that the water is triply distilled so that the current is reduced to minimum - obviously the current cannot be responsible for the work done. Moreover, the motion starts before the bridge is formed - this implies that the motion can only be powered by ambient heat.

Godfathers killed physics in more than one way:

https://pbs.twimg.com/media/DmP7MrTWsAMFHwx.png

Pentcho Valev
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  #2  
Old February 12th 19, 03:07 PM posted to sci.astro
Pentcho Valev
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Posts: 6,948
Default Water: the Substance That Overcomes the Second Law of Thermodynamics

Water rises and then goes down as the capacitor is switched on and off:

"Liquid Dielectric Capacitor" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6KAH1JpdPg

"Rise in level of liquid dielectric in capacitance" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uHNmzcYp6JE&t=358s

The systems can do mechanical work by regularly lifting floating weights. The work will be done at the expense of ambient heat (clearly not at the expense of electric energy - in the second video this is more than obvious), in violation of the second law of thermodynamics.

Water in an electric field automatically becomes a perpetual-motion machine of the second kind - the violation of the second law was noticed and immediately forgotten in 2002:

"A deviation from the second law of thermodynamics has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time. [...] To test the idea, the researchers put about 100 latex beads - each 6.3 µm across - into a WATER-FILLED CELL, which was placed on the stage of a microscope. The researchers focused a laser onto one of the beads, which induced a dipole moment in the bead and drew it towards the most intense region of the ELECTRIC FIELD in the laser beam." http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/...efy-second-law

Natu "Second law broken. Researchers have shown for the first time that, on the level of thousands of atoms and molecules, fleeting energy increases violate the second law of thermodynamics. [...] They found that over periods of time less than two seconds, variations in the random thermal motion of water molecules occasionally gave individual beads a kick. This increased the beads' kinetic energy by a small but significant amount, in apparent violation of the second law." http://www.nature.com/news/2002/0207...s020722-2.html

Scientific American: "Second Law of Thermodynamics Violated. [...] ...the water molecules interacted with the bead in such a way that energy was transferred from the liquid to the bead. These additional kicks used the random thermal motion of the water to do the work of moving the bead, in effect yielding something for nothing. For periods of movement lasting less than two seconds, the bead was almost as likely to gain energy from the water as it was to add energy to the reservoir, the investigators say." https://www.scientificamerican.com/a...f-thermodynam/

In an electric field, a non-conservative force (pressure) emerges in the bulk of water. This pressure pushes in all directions and, depending on the geometry of the system, produces cyclical flows or/and lifts the water against the gravitational force (both effects can convert ambient heat into work, in violation of the second law of thermodynamics):

Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky, Melba Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, pp.115-116: "Thus the decrease in force that is experienced between two charges when they are immersed in a dielectric liquid can be understood only by considering the effect of the PRESSURE OF THE LIQUID ON THE CHARGES themselves." http://www.amazon.com/Classical-Elec...iglink21401-20

"However, in experiments in which a capacitor is submerged in a dielectric liquid the force per unit area exerted by one plate on another is observed to decrease... [...] This apparent paradox can be explained by taking into account the DIFFERENCE IN LIQUID PRESSURE in the field filled space between the plates and the field free region outside the capacitor." http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teachin...es/node46.html

Tai Chow, Introduction to Electromagnetic Theory: A Modern Perspective, p. 267: "The strictly electric forces between charges on the conductors are not influenced by the presence of the dielectric medium. The medium is polarized, however, and the interaction of the electric field with the polarized medium results in an INCREASED FLUID PRESSURE ON THE CONDUCTORS that reduces the net forces acting on them." http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-T.../dp/0763738271

Pentcho Valev
 




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