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United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting the militarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.



 
 
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Old July 22nd 08, 08:19 AM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
J Waggoner
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 66
Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting the militarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.

Resolution 34/68.
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

The General Assembly,

United Nations logo

Reaffirming the importance of international cooperation in the field
of the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space, including the
moon and other celestial bodies, and of promoting the rule of law in
this field of human endeavour,

Recalling its resolution 27779 (XXVI) of 29 November 1971, in which it
requested the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its
Legal Sub-Committee to consider the question of the elaboration of a
draft international treaty concerning the moon, as well as its
resolutions 2915 (XXVII) of 9 November 1972, 3182 (XXVIII) of 18
December 1973, 3234 (XXIX) of 12 November 1974, 3388 (XXX) of 18
November 1975, 31/8 of 8 November 1976, 32/196 A of 20 December 1977
and 33/16 of 10 November 1978, in which it, inter alia, encouraged the
elaboration of the draft treaty relating to the moon,

Recalling, in particular, that in resolution 33/16 it endorsed the
recommendation of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
that the Legal Sub-Committee at its eighteenth session should continue
as a matter of priority its efforts to complete the draft treaty
relating to the moon,

Having considered the relevant part of the report of the Committee on
the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, in particular paragraphs 62, 63 and
65,

Noting with satisfaction that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of
Outer Space, on the basis of the deliberations and recommendations of
the Legal Sub-Committee, has completed the text of the draft Agreement
Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial
Bodies,

Having considered the text of the draft Agreement Governing the
Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,

1. Commends the Agreement Governing the Activities of States the text
of which is annexed to the present resolution;

2. Requests the Secretary-General to open the Agreement for signature
and ratification at the earliest possible date;

3. Expresses its hope for the widest possible adherence to this
Agreement.

89th plenary meeting, 5 December 1979
Annex
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

The States Parties to this Agreement,

Noting the achievements of States in the exploration and use of the
moon and other celestial bodies,

Recognizing that the moon, as a natural satellite of the earth, has an
important role to play in the exploration of outer space,

Determined to promote on the basis of equality the further development
of co-operation among States in the exploration and use of the moon
and other celestial bodies,

Desiring to prevent the moon from becoming an area of international
conflict,

Bearing in mind the benefits which may be derived from the
exploitation of the natural resources of the moon and other celestial
bodies,

Recalling the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States
in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and
Other Celestial Bodies, the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the
Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer
Space, the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by
Space Objects, and the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched
into Outer Space,

Taking into account the need to define and develop the provisions of
these international instruments in relation to the moon and other
celestial bodies, having regard to further progress in the exploration
and use of outer space,

Have agreed on the following:
Article 1

1. The provisions of this Agreement relating to the moon shall also
apply to other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than
the earth, except in so far as specific legal norms enter into force
with respect to any of these celestial bodies.

2. For the purposes of this Agreement reference to the moon shall
include orbits around or other trajectories to or around it.

3. This Agreement does not apply to extraterrestrial materials which
reach the surface of the earth by natural means.
Article 2

All activities on the moon, including its exploration and use, shall
be carried out in accordance with international law, in particular the
Charter of the United Nations, and taking into account the Declaration
on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and
Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations, adopted by the General Assembly on 24 October 1970, in the
interests of maintaining international peace and security and
promoting international co-operation and mutual understanding, and
with due regard to the corresponding interests of all other States
Parties.
Article 3

1. The moon shall be used by all States Parties exclusively for
peaceful purposes.

2. Any threat or use of force or any other hostile act or threat of
hostile act on the moon is prohibited. It is likewise prohibited to
use the moon in order to commit any such act or to engage in any such
threat in relation to the earth, the moon, spacecraft, the personnel
of spacecraft or man-made space objects.

3. States Parties shall not place in orbit around or other trajectory
to or around the moon objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other
kinds of weapons of mass destruction or place or use such weapons on
or in the moon.

4. The establishment of military bases, installation and
fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of
military manoeuvres on the moon shall be forbidden. The use of
military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful
purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment or facility
necessary for peaceful exploration and use of the moon shall also not
be prohibited.
Article 4

1. The exploration and use of the moon shall be the province of all
mankind and shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests
of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or
scientific development. Due regard shall be paid to the interests of
present and future generations as well as to the need to promote
higher standards of living and conditions of economic and social
progress and development in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations.

2. States Parties shall be guided by the principle of co-operation and
mutual assistance in all their activities concerning the exploration
and use of the moon. International co-operation in pursuance of this
Agreement should be as wide as possible and may take place on a
multilateral basis, on a bilateral basis or through international
intergovernmental organizations.
Article 5

1. State Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United
Nations as well as the public and the international scientific
community, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of their
activities concerned with the exploration and use of the moon.
Information on the time, purposes, locations, orbital parameters and
duration shall be given in respect of each mission to the moon as soon
as possible after launching, while information on the results of each
mission, including scientific results, shall be furnished upon
completion of the mission. In the case of a mission lasting more than
thirty days, information on conduct of the mission, including any
scientific results, shall be given periodically at thirty days'
intervals. For missions lasting more than six months, only significant
additions to such information need be reported thereafter.

2. If a State Party becomes aware that another State Party plans to
operate simultaneously in the same area of or in the same orbit around
or trajectory to or around the moon, it shall promptly inform the
other State of the timing of and plans for its own operations.

3. In carrying out activities under this Agreement, States Parties
shall promptly inform the Secretary-General, as well as the public and
the international scientific community, of any phenomena they discover
in outer space, including the moon, which could endanger human life or
health, as well as of any indication of organic life.
Article 6

1. There shall be freedom of scientific investigation on the moon by
all States Parties without discrimination of any kind, on the basis of
equality and in accordance with international law.

2. In carrying out scientific investigations and in furtherance of the
provisions of this Agreement, the States Parties shall have the right
to collect on and remove from the moon samples of its mineral and
other substances. Such samples shall remain at the disposal of those
States Parties which caused them to be collected and may be used by
them for scientific purposes. States Parties shall have regard to the
desirability of making a portion of such samples available to other
interested States Parties and the international scientific community
for scientific investigation. States Parties may in the course of
scientific investigations also use mineral and other substances of the
moon in quantities appropriate for the support of their missions.

3. States Parties agree on the desirability of exchanging scientific
and other personnel on expeditions to or installations on the moon to
the greatest extent feasible and practicable.
Article 7

1. In exploring and using the moon, States Parties shall take measures
to prevent the disruption of the existing balance of its environment
whether by introducing adverse changes in that environment, by its
harmful contamination through the introduction of extra-environmental
matter or otherwise. States Parties shall also take measures to avoid
harmfully affecting the environment of the earth through the
introduction of extraterrestrial matter or otherwise.

2. States Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United
Nations of the measures being adopted by them in accordance with
paragraph 1 of this article and shall also, to the maximum extent
feasible, notify him in advance of all placements by them of
radio-active materials on the moon and of the purposes of such
placements.

3. States Parties shall report to other States Parties and to the
Secretary-General concerning areas of the moon having special
scientific interest in order that, without prejudice to the rights of
other States Parties, consideration may be given to the designation of
such areas as international scientific preserves for which special
protective arrangements are to be agreed upon in consultation with the
competent bodies of the United Nations.
Article 8

1. States Parties may pursue their activities in the exploration and
use of the moon anywhere on or below its surface, subject to the
provisions of this Agreement.

2. For these purposes States Parties may, in particular:

(a) Land their space objects on the moon and launch them from the
moon;

(b) Place their personnel, space vehicles, equipment, facilities,
stations and installations anywhere on or below the surface of the
moon.

Personnel, space vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and
installations may move or be moved freely over or below the surface of
the moon.

3. Activities of States Parties in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2
of this article shall not interfere with the activities of other
States Parties on the moon. Where such interference may occur, the
States Parties concerned shall undertake consultations in accordance
with article 15, paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Agreement.
Article 9

1. States Parties may establish manned and unmanned stations on the
moon. A State Party establishing a station shall use only that area
which is required for the needs of the station and shall immediately
inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the location and
purposes of that station. Subsequently, at annual intervals that State
shall likewise inform the Secretary-General whether the station
continues in use and whether its purposes have changed.

2. Stations shall be installed in such a manner that they do not
impede the free access to all areas of the moon by personnel, vehicles
and equipment of other States Parties conducting activities on the
moon in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement or of article
I of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in
the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies.
Article 10

1. States Parties shall adopt all practicable measures to safeguard
the life and health of persons on the moon. For this purpose they
shall regard any person on the moon as an astronaut within the meaning
of article V of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of
States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon
and Other Celestial Bodies and as part of the personnel of a
spacecraft within the meaning of the Agreement on the Rescue of
Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects
Launched into Outer Space.

2. States Parties shall offer shelter in their stations,
installations, vehicles and other facilities to persons in distress on
the moon.
Article 11

1. The moon and its natural resources are the common heritage of
mankind, which finds its expression in the provisions of this
Agreement and in particular in paragraph 5 of this article.

2. The moon is not subject to national appropriation by any claim of
sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.

3. Neither the surface nor the subsurface of the moon, nor any part
thereof or natural resources in place, shall become property of any
State, international intergovernmental or non-governmental
organization, national organization or non-governmental entity or of
any natural person. The placement of personnel, space vehicles,
equipment, facilities, stations and installations on or below the
surface of the moon, including structures connected with its surface
or subsurface, shall not create a right of ownership over the surface
or the subsurface of the moon or any areas thereof. The foregoing
provisions are without prejudice to the international regime referred
to in paragraph 5 of this article.

4. States Parties have the right to exploration and use of the moon
without discrimination of any kind, on a basis of equality and in
accordance with international law and the terms of this Agreement.

5. States Parties to this Agreement hereby undertake to establish an
international regime, including appropriate procedures, to govern the
exploitation of the natural resources of the moon as such exploitation
is about to become feasible. This provision shall be implemented in
accordance with article 18 of this Agreement.

6. In order to facilitate the establishment of the international
regime referred to in paragraph 5 of this article, States Parties
shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations as well as
the public and the international scientific community, to the greatest
extent feasible and practicable, of any natural resources they may
discover on the moon.

7. The main purposes of the international regime to be established
shall include:

(a) The orderly and safe development of the natural resources of the
moon;

(b) The rational management of those resources;

(c) The expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources;

(d) An equitable sharing by all States Parties in the benefits derived
from those resources, whereby the interests and needs of the
developing countries, as well as the efforts of those countries which
have contributed either directly - or indirectly to the exploration of
the moon, shall be given special consideration.

8. All the activities with respect to the natural resources of the
moon shall be carried out in a manner compatible with the purposes
specified in paragraph 7 of this article and the provisions of article
6, paragraph 2, of this Agreement.
Article 12

1. States Parties shall retain jurisdiction and control over their
personnel, vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations
on the moon. The ownership of space vehicles, equipment, facilities,
stations and installations shall not be affected by their presence on
the moon.

2. Vehicles, installations and equipment or their component parts
found in places other than their intended location shall be dealt with
in accordance with article 5 of the Agreement on Rescue of Astronauts,
the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer
Space.

3. In the event of an emergency involving a threat to human life,
States Parties may use the equipment, vehicles, installations,
facilities or supplies of other States Parties on the moon. Prompt
notification of such use shall be made to the Secretary-General of the
United Nations or the State Party concerned.
Article 13

A State Party which learns of the crash landing, forced landing or
other unintended landing on the moon of a space object, or its
component parts, that were not launched by it, shall promptly inform
the launching State Party and the Secretary-General of the United
Nations.
Article 14

1. States Parties to this Agreement shall bear international
responsibility for national activities on the moon, whether such
activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by
non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities
are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in this
Agreement. States Parties shall ensure that non-governmental entities
under their jurisdiction shall engage in activities on the moon only
under the authority and continuing supervision of the appropriate
State Party.

2. States Parties recognize that detailed arrangements concerning
liability for damage caused on the moon, in addition to the provisions
of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the
Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies and the Convention on International Liability for
Damage Caused by Space Objects, may become necessary as a result of
more extensive activities on the moon. Any such arrangements shall be
elaborated in accordance with the procedure provided for in article 18
of this Agreement.
Article 15

1. Each State Party may assure itself that the activities of other
States Parties in the exploration and use of the moon are compatible
with the provisions of this Agreement. To this end, all space
vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations on the
moon shall be open to other States Parties. Such States Parties shall
give reasonable advance notice of a projected visit, in order that
appropriate consultations may be held and that maximum precautions may
be taken to assure safety and to avoid interference with normal
operations in the facility to be visited. In pursuance of this
article, any State Party may act on its own behalf or with the full or
partial assistance of any other State Party or through appropriate
international procedures within the framework of the United Nations
and in accordance with the Charter.

2. A State Party which has reason to believe that another State Party
is not fulfilling the obligations incumbent upon it pursuant to this
Agreement or that another State Party is interfering with the rights
which the former State has under this Agreement may request
consultations with that State Party. A State Party receiving such a
request shall enter into such consultations without delay. Any other
State Party which requests to do so shall be entitled to take part in
the consultations. Each State Party participating in such
consultations shall seek a mutually acceptable resolution of any
controversy and shall bear in mind the rights and interests of all
States Parties. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be
informed of the results of the consultations and shall transmit the
information received to all States Parties concerned.

3. If the consultations do not lead to a mutually acceptable
settlement which has due regard for the rights and interests of all
States Parties, the parties concerned shall take all measures to
settle the dispute by other peaceful means of their choice appropriate
to the circumstances and the nature of the dispute. If difficulties
arise in connection with the opening of consultations or if
consultations do not lead to a mutually acceptable settlement, any
State Party may seek the assistance of the Secretary-General, without
seeking the consent of any other State Party concerned, in order to
resolve the controversy. A State Party which does not maintain
diplomatic relations with another State Party concerned shall
participate in such consultations, at its choice, either itself or
through another State Party or the Secretary-General as intermediary.
Article 16

With the exception of articles 17 to 21, references in this Agreement
to States shall be deemed to apply to any international
intergovernmental organization which conducts space activities if the
organization declares its acceptance of the rights and obligations
provided for in this Agreement and if a majority of the States members
of the organization are States Parties to this Agreement and to the
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the
Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies. States members of any such organization which are
States Parties to this Agreement shall take all appropriate steps to
ensure that the organization makes a declaration in accordance with
the provisions of this article.
Article 17

Any State Party to this Agreement may propose amendments to the
Agreement. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to
the Agreement accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a
majority of the States Parties to the Agreement and thereafter for
each remaining State Party to the Agreement on the date of acceptance
by it.
Article 18

Ten years after the entry into force of this Agreement, the question
of the review of the Agreement shall be included in the provisional
agenda of the General Assembly of the United Nations in order to
consider, in the light of past application of the Agreement, whether
it requires revision. However, at any time after the Agreement has
been in force for five years, the Secretary-General of the United
Nations, as depositary, shall, at the request of one third of the
States Parties to the Agreement and with the concurrence of the
majority of the States Parties, convene a conference of the States
Parties to review this Agreement. A review conference shall also
consider the question of the implementation of the provisions of
article 11, paragraph 5, on the basis of the principle referred to in
paragraph 1 of that article and taking into account in particular any
relevant technological developments.
Article 19

1. This Agreement shall be open for signature by all States at United
Nations Headquarters in New York.

2. This Agreement shall be subject to ratification by signatory
States. Any State which does not sign this Agreement before its entry
into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede
to it at any time. Instruments of ratification or accession shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

3. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day
following the date of deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification.

4. For each State depositing its instrument of ratification or
accession after the entry into force of this Agreement, it shall enter
into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of any
such instrument.

5. The Secretary-General shall promptly inform all signatory and
acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of
each instrument of ratification or accession to this Agreement, the
date of its entry into force and other notices.
Article 20

Any State Party to this Agreement may give notice of its withdrawal
from the Agreement one year after its entry into force by written
notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Such
withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of this
notification.
Article 21

The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English,
French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the united Nations, who shall
send certified copies thereof to all signatory and acceding States.

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by
their respective Governments, have signed this Agreement, opened for
signature at New York on the fifth day of December one thousand nine
hundred and seventy-nine.
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  #2  
Old July 22nd 08, 09:04 AM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
G. L. Bradford
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 258
Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting the militarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.


"J Waggoner" wrote in message
...
Resolution 34/68.
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

The General Assembly,

United Nations logo

Reaffirming the importance of international cooperation in the field
of the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space, including the
moon and other celestial bodies, and of promoting the rule of law in
this field of human endeavour,

Recalling its resolution 27779 (XXVI) of 29 November 1971, in which it
requested the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its
Legal Sub-Committee to consider the question of the elaboration of a
draft international treaty concerning the moon, as well as its
resolutions 2915 (XXVII) of 9 November 1972, 3182 (XXVIII) of 18
December 1973, 3234 (XXIX) of 12 November 1974, 3388 (XXX) of 18
November 1975, 31/8 of 8 November 1976, 32/196 A of 20 December 1977
and 33/16 of 10 November 1978, in which it, inter alia, encouraged the
elaboration of the draft treaty relating to the moon,

Recalling, in particular, that in resolution 33/16 it endorsed the
recommendation of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
that the Legal Sub-Committee at its eighteenth session should continue
as a matter of priority its efforts to complete the draft treaty
relating to the moon,

Having considered the relevant part of the report of the Committee on
the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, in particular paragraphs 62, 63 and
65,

Noting with satisfaction that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of
Outer Space, on the basis of the deliberations and recommendations of
the Legal Sub-Committee, has completed the text of the draft Agreement
Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial
Bodies,

Having considered the text of the draft Agreement Governing the
Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,

1. Commends the Agreement Governing the Activities of States the text
of which is annexed to the present resolution;

2. Requests the Secretary-General to open the Agreement for signature
and ratification at the earliest possible date;

3. Expresses its hope for the widest possible adherence to this
Agreement.

89th plenary meeting, 5 December 1979
Annex
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

The States Parties to this Agreement,

Noting the achievements of States in the exploration and use of the
moon and other celestial bodies,

Recognizing that the moon, as a natural satellite of the earth, has an
important role to play in the exploration of outer space,

Determined to promote on the basis of equality the further development
of co-operation among States in the exploration and use of the moon
and other celestial bodies,

Desiring to prevent the moon from becoming an area of international
conflict,

Bearing in mind the benefits which may be derived from the
exploitation of the natural resources of the moon and other celestial
bodies,

Recalling the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States
in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and
Other Celestial Bodies, the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the
Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer
Space, the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by
Space Objects, and the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched
into Outer Space,

Taking into account the need to define and develop the provisions of
these international instruments in relation to the moon and other
celestial bodies, having regard to further progress in the exploration
and use of outer space,

Have agreed on the following:
Article 1

1. The provisions of this Agreement relating to the moon shall also
apply to other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than
the earth, except in so far as specific legal norms enter into force
with respect to any of these celestial bodies.

2. For the purposes of this Agreement reference to the moon shall
include orbits around or other trajectories to or around it.

3. This Agreement does not apply to extraterrestrial materials which
reach the surface of the earth by natural means.
Article 2

All activities on the moon, including its exploration and use, shall
be carried out in accordance with international law, in particular the
Charter of the United Nations, and taking into account the Declaration
on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and
Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations, adopted by the General Assembly on 24 October 1970, in the
interests of maintaining international peace and security and
promoting international co-operation and mutual understanding, and
with due regard to the corresponding interests of all other States
Parties.
Article 3

1. The moon shall be used by all States Parties exclusively for
peaceful purposes.

2. Any threat or use of force or any other hostile act or threat of
hostile act on the moon is prohibited. It is likewise prohibited to
use the moon in order to commit any such act or to engage in any such
threat in relation to the earth, the moon, spacecraft, the personnel
of spacecraft or man-made space objects.

3. States Parties shall not place in orbit around or other trajectory
to or around the moon objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other
kinds of weapons of mass destruction or place or use such weapons on
or in the moon.

4. The establishment of military bases, installation and
fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of
military manoeuvres on the moon shall be forbidden. The use of
military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful
purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment or facility
necessary for peaceful exploration and use of the moon shall also not
be prohibited.
Article 4

1. The exploration and use of the moon shall be the province of all
mankind and shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests
of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or
scientific development. Due regard shall be paid to the interests of
present and future generations as well as to the need to promote
higher standards of living and conditions of economic and social
progress and development in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations.

2. States Parties shall be guided by the principle of co-operation and
mutual assistance in all their activities concerning the exploration
and use of the moon. International co-operation in pursuance of this
Agreement should be as wide as possible and may take place on a
multilateral basis, on a bilateral basis or through international
intergovernmental organizations.
Article 5

1. State Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United
Nations as well as the public and the international scientific
community, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of their
activities concerned with the exploration and use of the moon.
Information on the time, purposes, locations, orbital parameters and
duration shall be given in respect of each mission to the moon as soon
as possible after launching, while information on the results of each
mission, including scientific results, shall be furnished upon
completion of the mission. In the case of a mission lasting more than
thirty days, information on conduct of the mission, including any
scientific results, shall be given periodically at thirty days'
intervals. For missions lasting more than six months, only significant
additions to such information need be reported thereafter.

2. If a State Party becomes aware that another State Party plans to
operate simultaneously in the same area of or in the same orbit around
or trajectory to or around the moon, it shall promptly inform the
other State of the timing of and plans for its own operations.

3. In carrying out activities under this Agreement, States Parties
shall promptly inform the Secretary-General, as well as the public and
the international scientific community, of any phenomena they discover
in outer space, including the moon, which could endanger human life or
health, as well as of any indication of organic life.
Article 6

1. There shall be freedom of scientific investigation on the moon by
all States Parties without discrimination of any kind, on the basis of
equality and in accordance with international law.

2. In carrying out scientific investigations and in furtherance of the
provisions of this Agreement, the States Parties shall have the right
to collect on and remove from the moon samples of its mineral and
other substances. Such samples shall remain at the disposal of those
States Parties which caused them to be collected and may be used by
them for scientific purposes. States Parties shall have regard to the
desirability of making a portion of such samples available to other
interested States Parties and the international scientific community
for scientific investigation. States Parties may in the course of
scientific investigations also use mineral and other substances of the
moon in quantities appropriate for the support of their missions.

3. States Parties agree on the desirability of exchanging scientific
and other personnel on expeditions to or installations on the moon to
the greatest extent feasible and practicable.
Article 7

1. In exploring and using the moon, States Parties shall take measures
to prevent the disruption of the existing balance of its environment
whether by introducing adverse changes in that environment, by its
harmful contamination through the introduction of extra-environmental
matter or otherwise. States Parties shall also take measures to avoid
harmfully affecting the environment of the earth through the
introduction of extraterrestrial matter or otherwise.

2. States Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United
Nations of the measures being adopted by them in accordance with
paragraph 1 of this article and shall also, to the maximum extent
feasible, notify him in advance of all placements by them of
radio-active materials on the moon and of the purposes of such
placements.

3. States Parties shall report to other States Parties and to the
Secretary-General concerning areas of the moon having special
scientific interest in order that, without prejudice to the rights of
other States Parties, consideration may be given to the designation of
such areas as international scientific preserves for which special
protective arrangements are to be agreed upon in consultation with the
competent bodies of the United Nations.
Article 8

1. States Parties may pursue their activities in the exploration and
use of the moon anywhere on or below its surface, subject to the
provisions of this Agreement.

2. For these purposes States Parties may, in particular:

(a) Land their space objects on the moon and launch them from the
moon;

(b) Place their personnel, space vehicles, equipment, facilities,
stations and installations anywhere on or below the surface of the
moon.

Personnel, space vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and
installations may move or be moved freely over or below the surface of
the moon.

3. Activities of States Parties in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2
of this article shall not interfere with the activities of other
States Parties on the moon. Where such interference may occur, the
States Parties concerned shall undertake consultations in accordance
with article 15, paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Agreement.
Article 9

1. States Parties may establish manned and unmanned stations on the
moon. A State Party establishing a station shall use only that area
which is required for the needs of the station and shall immediately
inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the location and
purposes of that station. Subsequently, at annual intervals that State
shall likewise inform the Secretary-General whether the station
continues in use and whether its purposes have changed.

2. Stations shall be installed in such a manner that they do not
impede the free access to all areas of the moon by personnel, vehicles
and equipment of other States Parties conducting activities on the
moon in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement or of article
I of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in
the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies.
Article 10

1. States Parties shall adopt all practicable measures to safeguard
the life and health of persons on the moon. For this purpose they
shall regard any person on the moon as an astronaut within the meaning
of article V of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of
States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon
and Other Celestial Bodies and as part of the personnel of a
spacecraft within the meaning of the Agreement on the Rescue of
Astronauts, the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects
Launched into Outer Space.

2. States Parties shall offer shelter in their stations,
installations, vehicles and other facilities to persons in distress on
the moon.
Article 11

1. The moon and its natural resources are the common heritage of
mankind, which finds its expression in the provisions of this
Agreement and in particular in paragraph 5 of this article.

2. The moon is not subject to national appropriation by any claim of
sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.

3. Neither the surface nor the subsurface of the moon, nor any part
thereof or natural resources in place, shall become property of any
State, international intergovernmental or non-governmental
organization, national organization or non-governmental entity or of
any natural person. The placement of personnel, space vehicles,
equipment, facilities, stations and installations on or below the
surface of the moon, including structures connected with its surface
or subsurface, shall not create a right of ownership over the surface
or the subsurface of the moon or any areas thereof. The foregoing
provisions are without prejudice to the international regime referred
to in paragraph 5 of this article.

4. States Parties have the right to exploration and use of the moon
without discrimination of any kind, on a basis of equality and in
accordance with international law and the terms of this Agreement.

5. States Parties to this Agreement hereby undertake to establish an
international regime, including appropriate procedures, to govern the
exploitation of the natural resources of the moon as such exploitation
is about to become feasible. This provision shall be implemented in
accordance with article 18 of this Agreement.

6. In order to facilitate the establishment of the international
regime referred to in paragraph 5 of this article, States Parties
shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations as well as
the public and the international scientific community, to the greatest
extent feasible and practicable, of any natural resources they may
discover on the moon.

7. The main purposes of the international regime to be established
shall include:

(a) The orderly and safe development of the natural resources of the
moon;

(b) The rational management of those resources;

(c) The expansion of opportunities in the use of those resources;

(d) An equitable sharing by all States Parties in the benefits derived
from those resources, whereby the interests and needs of the
developing countries, as well as the efforts of those countries which
have contributed either directly - or indirectly to the exploration of
the moon, shall be given special consideration.

8. All the activities with respect to the natural resources of the
moon shall be carried out in a manner compatible with the purposes
specified in paragraph 7 of this article and the provisions of article
6, paragraph 2, of this Agreement.
Article 12

1. States Parties shall retain jurisdiction and control over their
personnel, vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations
on the moon. The ownership of space vehicles, equipment, facilities,
stations and installations shall not be affected by their presence on
the moon.

2. Vehicles, installations and equipment or their component parts
found in places other than their intended location shall be dealt with
in accordance with article 5 of the Agreement on Rescue of Astronauts,
the Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer
Space.

3. In the event of an emergency involving a threat to human life,
States Parties may use the equipment, vehicles, installations,
facilities or supplies of other States Parties on the moon. Prompt
notification of such use shall be made to the Secretary-General of the
United Nations or the State Party concerned.
Article 13

A State Party which learns of the crash landing, forced landing or
other unintended landing on the moon of a space object, or its
component parts, that were not launched by it, shall promptly inform
the launching State Party and the Secretary-General of the United
Nations.
Article 14

1. States Parties to this Agreement shall bear international
responsibility for national activities on the moon, whether such
activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by
non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities
are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in this
Agreement. States Parties shall ensure that non-governmental entities
under their jurisdiction shall engage in activities on the moon only
under the authority and continuing supervision of the appropriate
State Party.

2. States Parties recognize that detailed arrangements concerning
liability for damage caused on the moon, in addition to the provisions
of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the
Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies and the Convention on International Liability for
Damage Caused by Space Objects, may become necessary as a result of
more extensive activities on the moon. Any such arrangements shall be
elaborated in accordance with the procedure provided for in article 18
of this Agreement.
Article 15

1. Each State Party may assure itself that the activities of other
States Parties in the exploration and use of the moon are compatible
with the provisions of this Agreement. To this end, all space
vehicles, equipment, facilities, stations and installations on the
moon shall be open to other States Parties. Such States Parties shall
give reasonable advance notice of a projected visit, in order that
appropriate consultations may be held and that maximum precautions may
be taken to assure safety and to avoid interference with normal
operations in the facility to be visited. In pursuance of this
article, any State Party may act on its own behalf or with the full or
partial assistance of any other State Party or through appropriate
international procedures within the framework of the United Nations
and in accordance with the Charter.

2. A State Party which has reason to believe that another State Party
is not fulfilling the obligations incumbent upon it pursuant to this
Agreement or that another State Party is interfering with the rights
which the former State has under this Agreement may request
consultations with that State Party. A State Party receiving such a
request shall enter into such consultations without delay. Any other
State Party which requests to do so shall be entitled to take part in
the consultations. Each State Party participating in such
consultations shall seek a mutually acceptable resolution of any
controversy and shall bear in mind the rights and interests of all
States Parties. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be
informed of the results of the consultations and shall transmit the
information received to all States Parties concerned.

3. If the consultations do not lead to a mutually acceptable
settlement which has due regard for the rights and interests of all
States Parties, the parties concerned shall take all measures to
settle the dispute by other peaceful means of their choice appropriate
to the circumstances and the nature of the dispute. If difficulties
arise in connection with the opening of consultations or if
consultations do not lead to a mutually acceptable settlement, any
State Party may seek the assistance of the Secretary-General, without
seeking the consent of any other State Party concerned, in order to
resolve the controversy. A State Party which does not maintain
diplomatic relations with another State Party concerned shall
participate in such consultations, at its choice, either itself or
through another State Party or the Secretary-General as intermediary.
Article 16

With the exception of articles 17 to 21, references in this Agreement
to States shall be deemed to apply to any international
intergovernmental organization which conducts space activities if the
organization declares its acceptance of the rights and obligations
provided for in this Agreement and if a majority of the States members
of the organization are States Parties to this Agreement and to the
Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the
Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other
Celestial Bodies. States members of any such organization which are
States Parties to this Agreement shall take all appropriate steps to
ensure that the organization makes a declaration in accordance with
the provisions of this article.
Article 17

Any State Party to this Agreement may propose amendments to the
Agreement. Amendments shall enter into force for each State Party to
the Agreement accepting the amendments upon their acceptance by a
majority of the States Parties to the Agreement and thereafter for
each remaining State Party to the Agreement on the date of acceptance
by it.
Article 18

Ten years after the entry into force of this Agreement, the question
of the review of the Agreement shall be included in the provisional
agenda of the General Assembly of the United Nations in order to
consider, in the light of past application of the Agreement, whether
it requires revision. However, at any time after the Agreement has
been in force for five years, the Secretary-General of the United
Nations, as depositary, shall, at the request of one third of the
States Parties to the Agreement and with the concurrence of the
majority of the States Parties, convene a conference of the States
Parties to review this Agreement. A review conference shall also
consider the question of the implementation of the provisions of
article 11, paragraph 5, on the basis of the principle referred to in
paragraph 1 of that article and taking into account in particular any
relevant technological developments.
Article 19

1. This Agreement shall be open for signature by all States at United
Nations Headquarters in New York.

2. This Agreement shall be subject to ratification by signatory
States. Any State which does not sign this Agreement before its entry
into force in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may accede
to it at any time. Instruments of ratification or accession shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

3. This Agreement shall enter into force on the thirtieth day
following the date of deposit of the fifth instrument of ratification.

4. For each State depositing its instrument of ratification or
accession after the entry into force of this Agreement, it shall enter
into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of any
such instrument.

5. The Secretary-General shall promptly inform all signatory and
acceding States of the date of each signature, the date of deposit of
each instrument of ratification or accession to this Agreement, the
date of its entry into force and other notices.
Article 20

Any State Party to this Agreement may give notice of its withdrawal
from the Agreement one year after its entry into force by written
notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Such
withdrawal shall take effect one year from the date of receipt of this
notification.
Article 21

The original of this Agreement, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English,
French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the united Nations, who shall
send certified copies thereof to all signatory and acceding States.

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by
their respective Governments, have signed this Agreement, opened for
signature at New York on the fifth day of December one thousand nine
hundred and seventy-nine.


==================

From 1963 through 2000 the State (led by these United States of America
and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), in a procession of such
treaties, martial laws and other edicts, declared the statist's absolute
supremacy and power, the statist's total authoritarian rule, over All
Mankind and every celestial body throughout the Universe (therefore
including Earth).

GLB

  #3  
Old July 22nd 08, 12:55 PM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
Rand Simberg[_1_]
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 8,311
Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting the militarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.

On Tue, 22 Jul 2008 02:19:00 -0500, in a place far, far away, J
Waggoner made the phosphor on my monitor glow in
such a way as to indicate that:

Resolution 34/68.
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies


massive snip of irrelevant treaty

Neither the US or any other spacefaring nation is a signatory to this
treaty.
  #4  
Old July 22nd 08, 06:32 PM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
G. L. Bradford
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 258
Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting the militarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.


"Rand Simberg" wrote in message
...
On Tue, 22 Jul 2008 02:19:00 -0500, in a place far, far away, J
Waggoner made the phosphor on my monitor glow in
such a way as to indicate that:

Resolution 34/68.
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies


massive snip of irrelevant treaty

Neither the US or any other spacefaring nation is a signatory to this
treaty.


No, but they are State signatories to the martial law Outer Space Treaty,
among other such declarations and seizures of absolute power over Mankind by
the statist....up to and including the attempted affirmation of statists'
total rule over this world and all life on it in the Kyoto agreement. There
isn't anything like colonization and breakout going on to or in the space
frontier, nor is there going to be anything like a free human permitted to
exist ever again either there or here by the statist....if the statist can
help it, that is.

GLB

  #5  
Old July 22nd 08, 06:58 PM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
BradGuth
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 21,544
Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting themilitarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.

How about China taking full command over the Selene/moon L1?

- Brad Guth Brad_Guth Brad.Guth BradGuth


On Jul 22, 12:19 am, J Waggoner wrote:
Resolution 34/68.
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

The General Assembly,

United Nations logo

Reaffirming the importance of international cooperation in the field
of the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space, including the
moon and other celestial bodies, and of promoting the rule of law in
this field of human endeavour,

Recalling its resolution 27779 (XXVI) of 29 November 1971, in which it
requested the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its
Legal Sub-Committee to consider the question of the elaboration of a
draft international treaty concerning the moon, as well as its
resolutions 2915 (XXVII) of 9 November 1972, 3182 (XXVIII) of 18
December 1973, 3234 (XXIX) of 12 November 1974, 3388 (XXX) of 18
November 1975, 31/8 of 8 November 1976, 32/196 A of 20 December 1977
and 33/16 of 10 November 1978, in which it, inter alia, encouraged the
elaboration of the draft treaty relating to the moon,

Recalling, in particular, that in resolution 33/16 it endorsed the
recommendation of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space
that the Legal Sub-Committee at its eighteenth session should continue
as a matter of priority its efforts to complete the draft treaty
relating to the moon,

Having considered the relevant part of the report of the Committee on
the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, in particular paragraphs 62, 63 and
65,

Noting with satisfaction that the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of
Outer Space, on the basis of the deliberations and recommendations of
the Legal Sub-Committee, has completed the text of the draft Agreement
Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial
Bodies,

Having considered the text of the draft Agreement Governing the
Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,

1. Commends the Agreement Governing the Activities of States the text
of which is annexed to the present resolution;

2. Requests the Secretary-General to open the Agreement for signature
and ratification at the earliest possible date;

3. Expresses its hope for the widest possible adherence to this
Agreement.

89th plenary meeting, 5 December 1979
Annex
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies

The States Parties to this Agreement,

Noting the achievements of States in the exploration and use of the
moon and other celestial bodies,

Recognizing that the moon, as a natural satellite of the earth, has an
important role to play in the exploration of outer space,

Determined to promote on the basis of equality the further development
of co-operation among States in the exploration and use of the moon
and other celestial bodies,

Desiring to prevent the moon from becoming an area of international
conflict,

Bearing in mind the benefits which may be derived from the
exploitation of the natural resources of the moon and other celestial
bodies,

Recalling the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States
in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and
Other Celestial Bodies, the Agreement on the Rescue of Astronauts, the
Return of Astronauts and the Return of Objects Launched into Outer
Space, the Convention on International Liability for Damage Caused by
Space Objects, and the Convention on Registration of Objects Launched
into Outer Space,

Taking into account the need to define and develop the provisions of
these international instruments in relation to the moon and other
celestial bodies, having regard to further progress in the exploration
and use of outer space,

Have agreed on the following:
Article 1

1. The provisions of this Agreement relating to the moon shall also
apply to other celestial bodies within the solar system, other than
the earth, except in so far as specific legal norms enter into force
with respect to any of these celestial bodies.

2. For the purposes of this Agreement reference to the moon shall
include orbits around or other trajectories to or around it.

3. This Agreement does not apply to extraterrestrial materials which
reach the surface of the earth by natural means.
Article 2

All activities on the moon, including its exploration and use, shall
be carried out in accordance with international law, in particular the
Charter of the United Nations, and taking into account the Declaration
on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and
Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations, adopted by the General Assembly on 24 October 1970, in the
interests of maintaining international peace and security and
promoting international co-operation and mutual understanding, and
with due regard to the corresponding interests of all other States
Parties.
Article 3

1. The moon shall be used by all States Parties exclusively for
peaceful purposes.

2. Any threat or use of force or any other hostile act or threat of
hostile act on the moon is prohibited. It is likewise prohibited to
use the moon in order to commit any such act or to engage in any such
threat in relation to the earth, the moon, spacecraft, the personnel
of spacecraft or man-made space objects.

3. States Parties shall not place in orbit around or other trajectory
to or around the moon objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other
kinds of weapons of mass destruction or place or use such weapons on
or in the moon.

4. The establishment of military bases, installation and
fortifications, the testing of any type of weapons and the conduct of
military manoeuvres on the moon shall be forbidden. The use of
military personnel for scientific research or for any other peaceful
purposes shall not be prohibited. The use of any equipment or facility
necessary for peaceful exploration and use of the moon shall also not
be prohibited.
Article 4

1. The exploration and use of the moon shall be the province of all
mankind and shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests
of all countries, irrespective of their degree of economic or
scientific development. Due regard shall be paid to the interests of
present and future generations as well as to the need to promote
higher standards of living and conditions of economic and social
progress and development in accordance with the Charter of the United
Nations.

2. States Parties shall be guided by the principle of co-operation and
mutual assistance in all their activities concerning the exploration
and use of the moon. International co-operation in pursuance of this
Agreement should be as wide as possible and may take place on a
multilateral basis, on a bilateral basis or through international
intergovernmental organizations.
Article 5

1. State Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United
Nations as well as the public and the international scientific
community, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable, of their
activities concerned with the exploration and use of the moon.
Information on the time, purposes, locations, orbital parameters and
duration shall be given in respect of each mission to the moon as soon
as possible after launching, while information on the results of each
mission, including scientific results, shall be furnished upon
completion of the mission. In the case of a mission lasting more than
thirty days, information on conduct of the mission, including any
scientific results, shall be given periodically at thirty days'
intervals. For missions lasting more than six months, only significant
additions to such information need be reported thereafter.

2. If a State Party becomes aware that another State Party plans to
operate simultaneously in the same area of or in the same orbit around
or trajectory to or around the moon, it shall promptly inform the
other State of the timing of and plans for its own operations.

3. In carrying out activities under this Agreement, States Parties
shall promptly inform the Secretary-General, as well as the public and
the international scientific community, of any phenomena they discover
in outer space, including the moon, which could endanger human life or
health, as well as of any indication of organic life.
Article 6

1. There shall be freedom of scientific investigation on the moon by
all States Parties without discrimination of any kind, on the basis of
equality and in accordance with international law.

2. In carrying out scientific investigations and in furtherance of the
provisions of this Agreement, the States Parties shall have the right
to collect on and remove from the moon samples of its mineral and
other substances. Such samples shall remain at the disposal of those
States Parties which caused them to be collected and may be used by
them for scientific purposes. States Parties shall have regard to the
desirability of making a portion of such samples available to other
interested States Parties and the international scientific community
for scientific investigation. States Parties may in the course of
scientific investigations also use mineral and other substances of the
moon in quantities appropriate for the support of their missions.

3. States Parties agree on the desirability of exchanging scientific
and other personnel on expeditions to or installations on the moon to
the greatest extent feasible and practicable.
Article 7

1. In exploring and using the moon, States Parties shall take measures
to prevent the disruption of the existing balance of its environment
whether by introducing adverse changes in that environment, by its
harmful contamination through the introduction of extra-environmental
matter or otherwise. States Parties shall also take measures to avoid
harmfully affecting the environment of the earth through the
introduction of extraterrestrial matter or otherwise.

2. States Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United
Nations of the measures being adopted by them in accordance with
paragraph 1 of this article and shall also, to the maximum extent
feasible, notify him in ...

read more »


  #6  
Old July 22nd 08, 07:04 PM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
American
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 1,224
Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting themilitarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.

On Jul 22, 1:32*pm, "G. L. Bradford" wrote:
"Rand Simberg" wrote in message

...

On Tue, 22 Jul 2008 02:19:00 -0500, in a place far, far away, J
Waggoner made the phosphor on my monitor glow in
such a way as to indicate that:


Resolution 34/68.
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies


massive snip of irrelevant treaty


Neither the US or any other spacefaring nation is a signatory to this
treaty.


* No, but they are State signatories to the martial law Outer Space Treaty,
among other such declarations and seizures of absolute power over Mankind by
the statist....up to and including the attempted affirmation of statists'
total rule over this world and all life on it in the Kyoto agreement. There
isn't anything like colonization and breakout going on to or in the space
frontier, nor is there going to be anything like a free human permitted to
exist ever again either there or here by the statist....if the statist can
help it, that is.

GLB


Funding for interstellar exploration must come from off-world
resourcing, if the current NWO wants to continue to play the
'blame game'. They do this by using environmentalism as a tool
for national market marginalization(s), and in propogating the
lie that everything will continue as it always has, esp. if oil
was/is always the answer to every single nation's needs, for ad-
vancing the species of man towards the industrial revolution, as
if when 'Spindletop' was all the rage.

These reasonings are absurd, and border on insanity, if they are
also based on the useless infrastructures of highway systems,
airports, and shipping lanes, and especially if whole regions of
the earth were meant to be cordoned off to these kinds of infra-
structures - all of the transportational infrastructures end up
not only being all of humanity's epitaph in concrete and steel,
but road-blocks to the higher calling of heavenly cosmology.

For this reason, the funding for interstellar transportation and
exploration is presently seen as our travail, but only if we let
the NWO get its way, then this 'travail' will only come from
'across' and 'around' the globe, rather than from 'above'. This
can be the only true sense that the Almighty's earth-man gives
birth to the next step of our evolution as a species of off-world
privateers, in accomplishing the space race, not only for God and
country, but for the future of our sovereignity as well.

Off-world resourcing must have the ability to complement the
push for FTL propulsion worldwide. For this to happen, asteroids
can be used marketwise, for laying the foundation for stellar-
interstellar trade routes, and not *just* for an 'escape route'
to the stars.

American
  #7  
Old July 22nd 08, 07:15 PM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
BradGuth
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 21,544
Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting themilitarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.

On Jul 22, 11:04 am, American wrote:
On Jul 22, 1:32 pm, "G. L. Bradford" wrote:



"Rand Simberg" wrote in message


...


On Tue, 22 Jul 2008 02:19:00 -0500, in a place far, far away, J
Waggoner made the phosphor on my monitor glow in
such a way as to indicate that:


Resolution 34/68.
Agreement Governing the Activities of States
on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies


massive snip of irrelevant treaty


Neither the US or any other spacefaring nation is a signatory to this
treaty.


No, but they are State signatories to the martial law Outer Space Treaty,
among other such declarations and seizures of absolute power over Mankind by
the statist....up to and including the attempted affirmation of statists'
total rule over this world and all life on it in the Kyoto agreement. There
isn't anything like colonization and breakout going on to or in the space
frontier, nor is there going to be anything like a free human permitted to
exist ever again either there or here by the statist....if the statist can
help it, that is.


GLB


Funding for interstellar exploration must come from off-world
resourcing, if the current NWO wants to continue to play the
'blame game'. They do this by using environmentalism as a tool
for national market marginalization(s), and in propogating the
lie that everything will continue as it always has, esp. if oil
was/is always the answer to every single nation's needs, for ad-
vancing the species of man towards the industrial revolution, as
if when 'Spindletop' was all the rage.

These reasonings are absurd, and border on insanity, if they are
also based on the useless infrastructures of highway systems,
airports, and shipping lanes, and especially if whole regions of
the earth were meant to be cordoned off to these kinds of infra-
structures - all of the transportational infrastructures end up
not only being all of humanity's epitaph in concrete and steel,
but road-blocks to the higher calling of heavenly cosmology.

For this reason, the funding for interstellar transportation and
exploration is presently seen as our travail, but only if we let
the NWO get its way, then this 'travail' will only come from
'across' and 'around' the globe, rather than from 'above'. This
can be the only true sense that the Almighty's earth-man gives
birth to the next step of our evolution as a species of off-world
privateers, in accomplishing the space race, not only for God and
country, but for the future of our sovereignity as well.

Off-world resourcing must have the ability to complement the
push for FTL propulsion worldwide. For this to happen, asteroids
can be used marketwise, for laying the foundation for stellar-
interstellar trade routes, and not *just* for an 'escape route'
to the stars.

American


But you'll always need to get the backing and/or management of lord
William Mook, and he doesn't care a tinkers damn about anything that's
not of his idea to start off with. Got any work-around for that one?

- Brad Guth Brad_Guth Brad.Guth BradGuth
  #8  
Old July 22nd 08, 10:09 PM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
Matt
external usenet poster
 
Posts: 258
Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting themilitarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.

Space powers India and France have signed, though not yet ratified, so
it's not quite true that no nation of consequence is on board.

Matt Bille
Sci/Tech News and Comment:
http://mattbille.blogspot.com
  #9  
Old July 22nd 08, 10:39 PM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
Rand Simberg[_1_]
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Posts: 8,311
Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting the militarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.

On Tue, 22 Jul 2008 14:09:25 -0700 (PDT), in a place far, far away,
Matt made the phosphor on my monitor glow in such
a way as to indicate that:

Space powers India and France have signed, though not yet ratified, so
it's not quite true that no nation of consequence is on board.


Carter signed, too. If they haven't ratified, they're not on board.
  #10  
Old July 23rd 08, 04:20 AM posted to sci.space.history,sci.space.shuttle,sci.space.policy
BradGuth
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Default United Nations 1979 Moon Treaty -- Prohitbiting themilitarization of the Moon, Mars and asteroids.

On Jul 22, 2:09 pm, Matt wrote:
Space powers India and France have signed, though not yet ratified, so
it's not quite true that no nation of consequence is on board.

Matt Bille
Sci/Tech News and Comment:http://mattbille.blogspot.com


But lord all-knowing William Mook hasn't signed a damn thing, so it
doesn't matter whatever anyone else has agreed to.

- Brad Guth Brad_Guth Brad.Guth BradGuth
 




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