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Daily Report #4463



 
 
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Old October 9th 07, 03:24 PM posted to sci.astro.hubble
Cooper, Joe
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Posts: 568
Default Daily Report #4463

Notice: Due to the conversion of some ACS WFC or HRC observations into
WFPC2, or NICMOS observations after the loss of ACS CCD science
capability in January, there may be an occasional discrepancy between
a proposal's listed (and correct) instrument usage and the abstract
that follows it.


HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE - Continuing to collect World Class Science

DAILY REPORT***** # 4463

PERIOD COVERED: UT October 05,06,07,08, 2007 (DOY 278,279,280,281)

OBSERVATIONS SCHEDULED

NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 8795

NICMOS Post-SAA calibration - CR Persistence Part 6

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of
NICMOS. Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA
contour 23, and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50
minutes of coming out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in
parallel in all three NICMOS Cameras. The POST-SAA darks will be non-
standard reference files available to users with a USEAFTER date/time
mark. The keyword 'USEAFTER=date/time' will also be added to the
header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword must be populated with
the time, in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8
times per day so each POST-SAA DARK will need to have the appropriate
time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both the raw
and processed images will be archived as POST-SAA DARKSs. Generally we
expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within
50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to remove the CR
persistence from the science i mages. Each observation will need its
own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the
NICMOS detectors.

NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 8793

NICMOS Post-SAA calibration - CR Persistence Part 4

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of
NICMOS. Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA
contour 23, and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50
minutes of coming out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in
parallel in all three NICMOS Cameras. The POST-SAA darks will be non-
standard reference files available to users with a USEAFTER date/time
mark. The keyword 'USEAFTER=date/time' will also be added to the
header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword must be populated with
the time, in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8
times per day so each POST-SAA DARK will need to have the appropriate
time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both the raw
and processed images will be archived as POST-SAA DARKSs. Generally we
expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within
50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to remove the CR
persistence from the science images. Each observation will need its
own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the
NICMOS detectors.

WFPC2 11352

Mass and distance of the sub-Saturn microlensing planet
OGLE-2007-BLG-349Lb

OGLE-2007-BLG-349Lb is the seventh planet discovered using
gravitational microlensing, with planet/star mass ratio 2.8e-4. These
microlensing planets lie in the cold, outer reaches of their solar
systems and are difficult to detect by other techniques because of
their long periods. However, microlensing detections by themselves
generally give only the planet/star mass ratio, not the absolute
planet mass. HST observations have yielded host star masses and
distances for two previous microlensing planets. Here, we propose to
apply a proven technique to measure the mass and distance of the
newest microlensing planet, which was discovered only two weeks ago.
We will use WFPC2 observations to unambiguously determine whether the
blended light seen during the event is due to the host star (rather
than a random interloper) and a combination of WFPC2 and NICMOS
observations to obtain photometric estimates of the mass and distance.
Two epochs of observations are required, one at high magnification (in
the very near future) and the other at baseline (but not too late --
to avoid having the lens move substantially away from the source).

S/C 11320

NICMOS Focus Monitoring Cycle 16

This program is a version of the standard focus sweep used since cycle
7. It has been modified to go deeper and uses more narrow filters for
improved focus determination. A new source was added in Cycle 14 in
order to accommodate 2-gyro mode: the open cluster NGC1850. This
source is part of the current proposal. The old target, the open
cluster NGC3603, will be used whenever available and the new target
used to fill the periods when NGC3603 is not visible. Steps: a) Use
refined target field positions as determined from cycle 7 calibrations
b) Use MULTIACCUM sequences of sufficient dynamic range to account for
defocus c) Do a 17-point focus sweep, +/- 8mm about the PAM mechanical
zeropoint for each cameras 1 and 2, in 1.0mm steps. For NIC3 we step
from -0.5mm to -9.5mm relative to mechanical zero, in steps of 1.0mm.
d) Use PAM X/Y tilt and OTA offset slew compensations refined from
previous focus monitoring/optical alignment activities.

FGS 11295

Trigonometric Calibration of the Distance Scale for Classical Novae

The distance scale for classical novae is important for understanding
the stellar physics of their thermonuclear runaways, their
contribution to Galactic nucleosynthesis, and their use as
extragalactic standard candles. Although it is known that there is a
relationship between their absolute magnitudes at maximum light and
their subsequent rates of decline--the well-known maximum-magnitude
rate-of-decline {MMRD} relation--it is difficult to set the zero-point
for the MMRD because of the very uncertain distances of Galactic
novae. We propose to measure precise trigonometric parallaxes for the
quiescent remnants of the four nearest classical novae. We will use
the Fine Guidance Sensors, which are proven to be capable of measuring
parallaxes with errors of ~0.2 mas, well below what is possible from
the ground.

WFPC2 11289

SL2S: The Strong Lensing Legacy Survey

Recent systematic surveys of strong galaxy-galaxy lenses {CLASS,
SLACS, GOODS, etc.} are producing spectacular results for galaxy
masses roughly below a transition mass M~10^13 Mo. The observed lens
properties and their evolution up to z~0.2, consistent with numerical
simulations, can be described by isothermal elliptical potentials. In
contrast, modeling of giant arcs in X-ray luminous clusters {halo
masses M ~10^13 Mo} favors NFW mass profiles, suggesting that dark
matter halos are not significantly affected by baryon cooling. Until
recently, lensing surveys were neither deep nor extended enough to
probe the intermediate mass density regime, which is fundamental for
understanding the assembly of structures. The CFHT Legacy Survey now
covers 125 square degrees, and thus offers a large reservoir of strong
lenses probing a large range of mass densities up to z~1. We have
extracted a list of 150 strong lenses using the most recent CFHTLS
data release via automated procedures. Following our first SNAPSHOT
proposal in cycle 15, we propose to continue the Hubble follow-up
targeting a larger list of 130 lensing candidates. These are
intermediate mass range candidates {between galaxies and clusters}
that are selected in the redshift range of 0.2-1 with no a priori
X-ray selection. The HST resolution is necessary for confirming the
lensing candidates, accurate modeling of the lenses, and probing the
total mass concentration in galaxy groups up to z~1 with the largest
unbiased sample available to date.

WFPC2 11227

The orbital period for an ultraluminous X-ray source in NGC1313

The ultraluminous X-ray sources {ULXs} are extragalactic point sources
with luminosities that exceed the Eddington luminosity for
conventional stellar-mass black holes by factors of 10 - 100. It has
been hotly debated whether the ULXs are just common stellar-mass black
hole sources with beamed emission or whether they are sub-Eddington
sources that are powered by the long-sought intermediate mass black
holes {IMBH}. To firmly decide this question, one must obtain
dynamical mass measurements through photometric and spectroscopic
monitoring of the secondaries of these system. The crucial first step
is to establish the orbital period of a ULX, and arguably the best way
to achieve this goal is by monitoring its ellipsoidal light curve. The
extreme ULX NGC1313 X-2 provides an outstanding target for an orbital
period determination because its relatively bright optical counterpart
{V = 23.5} showed a 15% variation between two HST observations
separated by three months. This level of variability is consistent
with that expected for a tidally distorted secondary star. Here we
propose a set of 20 imaging observations with HST/WFPC2 to define the
orbital period. This would be the first photometric measurement of the
orbital period of a ULX binary. Subsequently, we will propose to
obtain spectroscopic observations to obtain its radial velocity
amplitude and thereby a dynamical estimate of its mass.

NIC2 11219

Active Galactic Nuclei in nearby galaxies: a new view of the origin of
the radio-loud radio- quiet dichotomy?

Using archival HST and Chandra observations of 34 nearby early-type
galaxies {drawn from a complete radio selected sample} we have found
evidence that the radio-loud/radio-quiet dichotomy is directly
connected to the structure of the inner regions of their host galaxies
in the following sense: [1] Radio-loud AGN are associated with
galaxies with shallow cores in their light profiles [2] Radio-quiet
AGN are only hosted by galaxies with steep cusps. Since the brightness
profile is determined by the galaxy's evolution, through its merger
history, our results suggest that the same process sets the AGN
flavour. This provides us with a novel tool to explore the
co-evolution of galaxies and supermassive black holes, and it opens a
new path to understand the origin of the radio-loud/radio-quiet AGN
dichotomy. Currently our analysis is statistically incomplete as the
brightness profile is not available for 82 of the 116 targets. Most
galaxies were not observed with HST, while in some cases the study is
obstructed by the presence of dust features. We here propose to
perform an infrared NICMOS snapshot survey of these 82 galaxies. This
will enable us to i} test the reality of the dichotomic behaviour in a
substantially larger sample; ii} extend the comparison between
radio-loud and radio-quiet AGN to a larger range of luminosities.

FGS 11212

Filling the Period Gap for Massive Binaries

The current census of binaries among the massive O-type stars is
seriously incomplete for systems in the period range from years to
millennia because the radial velocity variations are too small and the
angular separations too close for easy detection. Here we propose to
discover binaries in this observational gap through a Faint Guidance
Sensor SNAP survey of relatively bright targets listed in the Galactic
O Star Catalog. Our primary goal is to determine the binary frequency
among those in the cluster/association, field, and runaway groups. The
results will help us assess the role of binaries in massive star
formation and in the processes that lead to the ejection of massive
stars from their natal clusters. The program will also lead to the
identification of new, close binaries that will be targets of long
term spectroscopic and high angular resolution observations to
determine their masses and distances. The results will also be
important for the interpretation of the spectra of suspected and newly
identified binary and multiple systems.

WFPC2 11206

At the cradle of the Milky Way: Formation of the most massive field
disk galaxies at z1

We propose to obtain 2 orbit WFPC2 F814W images of a sample of the 15
most massive galaxies found at $1 z 1.3$. These were culled from
over 20,000 Keck spectra collected as part of DEEP and are unique
among high redshift massive galaxy samples in being kinematically
selected. Through a recent HST NICMOS-2 imaging program {GO- 10532},
we have confirmed that these galaxies have regular stellar disks, and
their emission line kinematics are not due to gradients from merging
components. These potentially very young galaxies are likely
precursors to massive local disks, assuming no further merging. The
proposed WFPC2 and existing NIC-2 data provide colors, stellar masses,
and ages of bulge and disk subcomponents, to assess whether old
stellar bulges and disks are in place at that time or still being
built, and constrain their formation epochs. Finally, this sample will
yield the first statistically significant results on the $z 1$
evolution of the size-velocity-luminosity scaling relations, for
massive galaxies at different wavelengths, and constrain whether this
evolution reflects stellar mass growth, or passive evolution, of
either bulge or disk components.

WFPC2 11203

A Search for Circumstellar Disks and Planetary-Mass Companions around
Brown Dwarfs in Taurus

During a 1-orbit program in Cycle 14, we used WFPC2 to obtain the
first direct image of a circumstellar disk around a brown dwarf. These
data have provided fundamental new constraints on the formation
process of brown dwarfs and the properties of their disks. To search
for additional direct detections of disks around brown dwarfs and to
search for planetary-mass companions to these objects, we propose a
WFPC2 survey of 32 brown dwarfs in the Taurus star-forming region.

WFPC2 11202

The Structure of Early-type Galaxies: 0.1-100 Effective Radii

The structure, formation and evolution of early-type galaxies is still
largely an open problem in cosmology: how does the Universe evolve
from large linear scales dominated by dark matter to the highly
non-linear scales of galaxies, where baryons and dark matter both play
important, interacting, roles? To understand the complex physical
processes involved in their formation scenario, and why they have the
tight scaling relations that we observe today {e.g. the Fundamental
Plane}, it is critically important not only to understand their
stellar structure, but also their dark-matter distribution from the
smallest to the largest scales. Over the last three years the SLACS
collaboration has developed a toolbox to tackle these issues in a
unique and encompassing way by combining new non-parametric strong
lensing techniques, stellar dynamics, and most recently weak
gravitational lensing, with high-quality Hubble Space Telescope
imaging and VLT/Keck spectroscopic data of early-type lens systems.
This allows us to break degeneracies that are inherent to each of
these techniques separately and probe the mass structure of early-type
galaxies from 0.1 to 100 effective radii. The large dynamic range to
which lensing is sensitive allows us both to probe the clumpy
substructure of these galaxies, as well as their low-density outer
haloes. These methods have convincingly been demonstrated, by our
team, using smaller pilot-samples of SLACS lens systems with HST data.
In this proposal, we request observing time with WFPC2 and NICMOS to
observe 53 strong lens systems from SLACS, to obtain complete
multi-color imaging for each system. This would bring the total number
of SLACS lens systems to 87 with completed HST imaging and effectively
doubles the known number of galaxy-scale strong lenses. The deep HST
images enable us to fully exploit our new techniques, beat down
low-number statistics, and probe the structure and evolution of
early-type galaxies, not only with a uniform data-set an order of
magnitude larger than what is available now, but also with a fully
coherent and self-consistent methodological approach!

WFPC2 11178

Probing Solar System History with Orbits, Masses, and Colors of
Transneptunian Binaries

The recent discovery of numerous transneptunian binaries {TNBs} opens
a window into dynamical conditions in the protoplanetary disk where
they formed as well as the history of subsequent events which sculpted
the outer Solar System and emplaced them onto their present day
heliocentric orbits. To date, at least 47 TNBs have been discovered,
but only about a dozen have had their mutual orbits and separate
colors determined, frustrating their use to investigate numerous
important scientific questions. The current shortage of data
especially cripples scientific investigations requiring statistical
comparisons among the ensemble characteristics. We propose to obtain
sufficient astrometry and photometry of 23 TNBs to compute their
mutual orbits and system masses and to determine separate primary and
secondary colors, roughly tripling the sample for which this
information is known, as well as extending it to include systems of
two near-equal size bodies. To make the most efficient possible use of
HST, we will use a Monte Carlo technique to optimally schedule our
observations.

WFPC2 11176

Location and the Origin of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

During the past decade extraordinary progress has been made in
determining the origin of long-duration gamma-ray bursts. It has been
conclusively shown that these objects derive from the deaths of
massive stars. Nonetheless, the origin of their observational cousins,
short-duration gamma-ray bursts {SGRBs} remains a mystery. While SGRBs
are widely thought to result from the inspiral of compact binaries,
this is a conjecture. A number of hosts of SGRBs have been identified,
and have been used by some to argue that SGRBs derive primarily from
an ancient population {~ 5 Gyr}; however, it is not known whether this
conclusion more accurately reflects selection biases or astrophysics.
Here we propose to employ a variant of a technique that we pioneered
and used to great effect in elucidating the origins of long-duration
bursts. We will examine the degree to which SGRB locations trace the
red or blue light of their hosts, and thus old or young stellar
populations. This approach will allow us to study the demographics of
the SGRB population in a manner largely free of the distance dependent
selection effects which have so far bedeviled this field, and should
give direct insight into the age of the SGRB progenitor population.

ACS/SBC WFPC2 11175

UV Imaging to Determine the Location of Residual Star Formation in
Galaxies Recently Arrived on the Red Sequence

We have identified a sample of low-redshift {z = 0.04 - 0.10} galaxies
that are candidates for recent arrival on the red sequence. They have
red optical colors indicative of old stellar populations, but blue
UV-optical colors that could indicate the presence of a small quantity
of continuing or very recent star formation. However, their spectra
lack the emission lines that characterize star-forming galaxies. We
propose to use ACS/SBC to obtain high- resolution imaging of the UV
flux in these galaxies, in order to determine the spatial distribution
of the last episode of star formation. WFPC2 imaging will provide B,
V, and I photometry to measure the main stellar light distribution of
the galaxy for comparison with the UV imaging, as well as to measure
color gradients and the distribution of interstellar dust. This
detailed morphological information will allow us to investigate the
hypothesis that these galaxies have recently stopped forming stars and
to compare the observed distribution of the last star formation with
predictions for several different mechanisms that may quench star
formation in galaxies.

NIC2 11152

Probing the compact dust disk of a nearby Classical T Tauri Star

BP Psc is a high Galactic latitude {b = -57}, bright, IRAS source that
generally has been classified as a T Tauri star but little studied to
date. We have carried out a multiwavelength ground-based study of this
object and find that it is most likely a ~10 Myr classical T Tauri
star surrounded by a gas and dust disk, and less than 100 pc from
Earth, making it one of the oldest and closest such stars known.
Near-IR AO images and IR photometry show it is surrounded by an
compact {0.2"}, almost-edge-on, optically thick disk of dust with a
wide range of temperatures. We propose a multiwavelength polarimetric
study of the compact disk to support quantitative modeling to recover
disk and dust parameters. We also propose coronagraphic imaging to
search for larger-scale dust structures invisible in ground-based
images, and narrowband imaging of an outflow jet and associated
Herbig- Haro objects to study their structure and determine a
kinematic distance of the system. A massive compact disk surrounding
an isolated 10 Myr star is a unique environment for planet formation,
and its proximity to Earth allows HST to study it in detail.

ACS/SBC 11151

Evaluating the Role of Photoevaporation of Protoplanetary Disk
Dispersal

Emission produced by accretion onto the central star leads to
photoevaporation, which may play a fundamental role in disk dispersal.
Models of disk photoevaporation by the central star are challenged by
two potential problems: the emission produced by accretion will be
substantially weaker for low-mass stars, and photoevaporation must
continue as accretion slows. Existing FUV spectra of CTTSs are biased
to solar-mass stars with high accretion rates, and are therefore
insufficient to address these problems. We propose use HST/ACS SBC
PR130L to obtain FUV spectra of WTTSs and of CTTSs at low masses and
mass accretion rates to provide crucial data to evaluate
photoevaporation models. We will estimate the FUV and EUV luminosities
of low-mass CTTSs with small mass accretion rates, CTTSs with
transition disks and slowed accretion, and of magnetically-active
WTTSs.

NIC2 11143

NICMOS imaging of submillimeter galaxies with CO and PAH redshifts

We propose to obtain F110W and F160W imaging of 10 z~2.4 submillimeter
galaxies {SMGs} whose optical redshifts have been confirmed by the
detection of millimeter CO and/or mid-infrared PAH emission. With the
4000A break falling within/between the two imaging filters, we will be
able to study these sources' spatially resolved stellar populations
{modulo extinction} in the rest-frame optical. SMGs' large
luminosities appear to be due largely to merger-triggered starbursts;
high-resolution NICMOS imaging will help us understand the stellar
masses, mass ratios, and other properties of the merger progenitors,
valuable information in the effort to model the mass assembly history
of the universe.

WFPC2 11134

WFPC2 Tidal Tail Survey: Probing Star Cluster Formation on the Edge

The spectacular HST images of the interiors of merging galaxies such
as the Antennae and NGC 7252 have revealed rich and diverse
populations of star clusters created over the course of the
interaction. Intriguingly, our WFPC2 study of tidal tails in these and
other interacting pairs has shown that star cluster birth in the tails
does not follow a similarly straightforward evolution. In fact,
cluster formation in these relatively sparse environments is not
guaranteed -- only one of six tails in our initial study showed
evidence for a significant population of young star clusters. The tail
environment thus offers the opportunity to probe star cluster
formation on the edge of the physical parameter space {e.g., of
stellar and gas mass, density, and pressure} that permits it to occur.
We propose to significantly extend our pilot sample of optically
bright, gas-rich tidal tails by a factor of 4 in number to include a
more diverse population of tails, encompassing major and minor
mergers, gas-rich and gas-poor tails, as well as early, late, and
merged interaction stages. With 21 orbits of HST WFPC2 imaging in the
F606W and F814W filters, we can identify, roughly age-date, and
measure sizes of star clusters to determine what physical parameters
affect star cluster formation. WFPC2 imaging has been used effectively
in our initial study of four mergers, and it will be possible in this
program to reach similar limits of Mv=-8.5 for each of 16 more tails.
With the much larger sample we expect to isolate which factors, such
as merger stage, HI content, and merger mass ratio, drive the
formation of star clusters.

WFPC2 11130

AGNs with Intermediate-mass Black Holes: Testing the Black Hole-Bulge
Paradigm, Part II

The recent progress in the study of central black holes in galactic
nuclei has led to a general consensus that supermassive {10^6-10^9
solar mass} black holes are closely connected with the formation and
evolutionary history of large galaxies, especially their bulge
component. Two outstanding issues, however, remain unresolved. Can
central black holes form in the absence of a bulge? And does the mass
function of central black holes extend below 10^6 solar masses?
Intermediate-mass black holes {10^6 solar masses}, if they exist, may
offer important clues to the nature of the seeds of supermassive black
holes. Using the SDSS, our group has successfully uncovered a new
population of AGNs with intermediate-mass black holes that reside in
low-luminosity galaxies. However, very little is known about the
detailed morphologies or structural parameters of the host galaxies
themselves, including the crucial question of whether they have bulges
or not. Surprisingly, the majority of the targets of our Cycle 14
pilot program have structural properties similar to dwarf elliptical
galaxies. The statistics from this initial study, however, are really
too sparse to reach definitive conclusions on this important new class
of black holes. We wish to extend this study to a larger sample, by
using the Snapshot mode to obtain WFPC2 F814W images from a parent
sample of 175 AGNs with intermediate-mass black holes selected from
our final SDSS search. We are particularly keen to determine whether
the hosts contain bulges, and if so, how the fundamental plane
properties of the host depend on the mass of their central black
holes. We will also investigate the environment of this unique class
of AGNs.

WFPC2 11129

The Star Formation History of the Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

The Fornax dwarf spheroidal galaxy is one of the most luminous dwarf
satellites of the Milky Way. It is unusual in many ways: it hosts 5
globular clusters, shows some relatively young stars, and has faint
sub-structures which have been interpreted as signs of recent
interactions. It is thus of great interest to learn the complete star
formation history {SFH} of Fornax to establish a link between its
evolutionary path and the predictions from numerical simulations, as a
test of our understanding of dwarf galaxy evolution. Yet many
questions remain open. Is the old stellar population made up of stars
formed in a very early burst, perhaps before the epoch of
reionisation, or the result of a more continuous star formation
between 13 and 9 Gyr ago ? How quickly did Fornax increase its
metallicity during its initial assembly and during subsequent episodes
of star formation ? Are accretion episodes required to explain the
age-metallicity history of Fornax ? However, there has never been a
comprehensive study of the global SFH of the Fornax field based on
data of sufficient depth to unambiguously measure the age mixture of
the stellar populations and their spatial variation. We propose to use
the WFPC2 to obtain very deep images in several fields across the
central region of Fornax in order to reach the oldest main-sequence
turnoffs. The number of fields is determined by the need to measure
the SFH over different regions with distinct kinematics and
metallicity. The resolution achievable with HST is crucial to answer
these questions because, to derive the age distribution of the oldest
stars, we are interested in I magnitude differences of the order 0.2
mag in crowded fields at V=24.5. We will directly measure the time
variation in star-formation rate over the entire galaxy history, from
first stars coeval with the Milky Way halo to the youngest populations
200 Myr ago. The combination of detailed CMD analysis with WFPC2 with
our existing metallicity and kinematic information will allow us to
trace out the early phases of its evolution.

NIC3 11107

Imaging of Local Lyman Break Galaxy Analogs: New Clues to Galaxy
Formation in the Early Universe

We have used the ultraviolet all-sky imaging survey currently being
conducted by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer {GALEX} to identify for the
first time a rare population of low- redshift starbursts with
properties remarkably similar to high-redshift Lyman Break Galaxies
{LBGs}. These "compact UV luminous galaxies" {UVLGs} resemble LBGs in
terms of size, SFR, surface brightness, mass, metallicity, kinematics,
dust, and color. The UVLG sample offers the unique opportunity of
investigating some very important properties of LBGs that have
remained virtually inaccessible at high redshift: their morphology and
the mechanism that drives their star formation. Therefore, in Cycle 15
we have imaged 7 UVLGs using ACS in order to 1} characterize their
morphology and look for signs of interactions and mergers, and 2}
probe their star formation histories over a variety of timescales. The
images show a striking trend of small-scale mergers turning large
amounts of gas into vigorous starbursts {a process referred to as
dissipational or "wet" merging}. Here, we propose to complete our
sample of 31 LBG analogs using the ACS/SBC F150LP {FUV} and WFPC2
F606W {R} filters in order to create a statistical sample to study the
mechanism that triggers star formation in UVLGs and its implications
for the nature of LBGs. Specifically, we will 1} study the trend
between galaxy merging and SFR in UVLGs, 2} artificially redshift the
FUV images to z=1-4 and compare morphologies with those in similarly
sized samples of LBGs at the same rest-frame wavelengths in e.g.
GOODS, UDF, and COSMOS, 3} determine the presence and morphology of
significant stellar mass in "pre-burst" stars, and 4} study their
immediate environment. Together with our Spitzer {IRAC+MIPS}, GALEX,
SDSS and radio data, the HST observations will form a unique union of
data that may for the first time shed light on how the earliest major
episodes of star formation in high redshift galaxies came about. This
proposal was adapted from an ACS HRC+WFC proposal to meet the new
Cycle 16 observing constraints, and can be carried out using the
ACS/SBC and WFPC2 without compromising our original science goals.

WFPC2 11079

Treasury Imaging of Star Forming Regions in the Local Group:
Complementing the GALEX and NOAO Surveys

We propose to use WFPC2 to image the most interesting star-forming
regions in the Local Group galaxies, to resolve their young stellar
populations. We will use a set of filters including F170W, which is
critical to detect and characterize the most massive stars, to whose
hot temperatures colors at longer wavelengths are not sensitive.
WFPC2's field of view ideally matches the typical size of the
star-forming regions, and its spatial resolution allows us to measure
individual stars, given the proximity of these galaxies. The resulting
H-R diagrams will enable studies of star-formation properties in these
regions, which cover largely differing metallicities {a factor of 17,
compared to the factor of 4 explored so far} and characteristics. The
results will further our understanding of the star-formation process,
of the interplay between massive stars and environment, the properties
of dust, and will provide the key to interpret integrated measurements
of star-formation indicators {UV, IR, Halpha} available for several
hundreds more distant galaxies. Our recent deep surveys of these
galaxies with GALEX {FUV, NUV} and ground-based imaging {UBVRI,
Halpha, [OIII] and [SII]} provided the identification of the most
relevant SF sites. In addition to our scientific analysis, we will
provide catalogs of HST photometry in 6 bands, matched corollary
ground-based data, and UV, Halpha and IR integrated measurements of
the associations, for comparison of integrated star-formation indices
to the resolved populations. We envisage an EPO component.

WFPC2 11029

WFPC2 CYCLE 15 Intflat Linearity Check and Filter Rotation Anomaly
Monitor

Intflat observations will be taken to provide a linearity check: the
linearity test consists of a series of intflats in F555W, in each gain
and each shutter. A combination of intflats, visflats, and earthflats
will be used to check the repeatability of filter wheel motions.
{Intflat sequences tied to decons, visits 1-18 in prop 10363, have
been moved to the cycle 15 decon proposal xxxx for easier scheduling.}
Note: long-exposure WFPC2 intflats must be scheduled during ACS
anneals to prevent stray light from the WFPC2 lamps from contaminating
long ACS external exposures.

WFPC2 11024

WFPC2 CYCLE 15 INTERNAL MONITOR

This calibration proposal is the Cycle 15 routine internal monitor for
WFPC2, to be run weekly to monitor the health of the cameras. A
variety of internal exposures are obtained in order to provide a
monitor of the integrity of the CCD camera electronics in both bays
{both gain 7 and gain 15 -- to test stability of gains and bias
levels}, a test for quantum efficiency in the CCDs, and a monitor for
possible buildup of contaminants on the CCD windows. These also
provide raw data for generating annual super-bias reference files for
the calibration pipeline.

WFPC2 11023

WFPC2 CYCLE 15 Standard Darks - part 1

This dark calibration program obtains dark frames every week in order
to provide data for the ongoing calibration of the CCD dark current
rate, and to monitor and characterize the evolution of hot pixels.
Over an extended period these data will also provide a monitor of
radiation damage to the CCDs.

FGS 10929

Calibrating the Mass-Luminosity Relation at the End of the Main
Sequence

We propose to use HST-FGS1R to finish calibrating the mass-luminosity
relation for stars less massive than 0.5 Msun, with special emphasis
on objects near the stellar/substellar border. Our goals are to
determine Mv values to 0.05 magnitude and masses to 5%, and thereby
build the fundamental database of stellar masses that we will use to
test theoretical models as never before. This program uses the
combination of HST- FGS3/FGS1R at optical wavelengths, historical
infrared speckle data, ground-based parallax work, metallicity
studies, and radial velocity monitoring to examine nearby,
subarcsecond binary systems. The high precision separation and
position angle measurements with HST-FGS3/FGS1R {to 1 mas in the
separations} for these faint {V = 10-15} targets simply cannot be
equaled by any ground-based technique. As a result of these
measurements, we are deriving high quality luminosities and masses for
the components in the systems, and characterizing their spectral
energy distributions from 0.5 to 2.2 microns. One of the objects, GJ
1245 C with mass 0.074 +/- 0.002 Msun, is the only object known with
an accurate dynamical mass less than 0.10 Msun. The payoff of this
proposal is high because the six systems selected for final
observations in Cycles 15 and 16 have already been resolved during
Cycles 5-13 with HST FGS3/FGS1R and contain most of the reddest
objects for which accurate dynamical masses can be determined.

ACS/SBC 10872

Lyman Continuum Emission in Galaxies at z=1.2

Lyman continuum photons produced in massive starbursts may have played
a dominant role in the reionization of the Universe. Starbursts are
important contributors to the ionizing metagalactic background at
lower redshifts as well. However, their contribution to the background
depends upon the fraction of ionizing radiation that escapes from the
intrinsic opacity of galaxies below the Lyman limit. Current surveys
suggest escape fractions of a few percent, up to 10%, with very few
detections {as opposed to upper limits} having been reported. No
detections have been reported in the epochs between z=0.1 and z=2. We
propose to measure the fraction of escaping Lyman continuum radiation
from 15 luminous z~1.2 galaxies in the GOODS fields. Using the
tremendous sensitivity of the ACS Solar- blind Channel, we will reach
AB=30 mag., allowing us to detect an escape fraction of 1%. We will
correlate the amount of escaping radiation with the photometric and
morphological properties of the galaxies. A non-detection in all
sources would imply that QSOs provide the overwhelming majority of
ionizing radiation at z=1.3, and it would strongly indicate that the
properties of galaxies at higher redshift have to be significantly
different for galaxies to dominate reionization. The deep FUV images
will also be useful for extending the FUV study of other galaxies in
the GOODS fields.

ACS/SBC 10864

Mapping the Gaseous Content of Protoplanetary and Young Planetary
Systems with ACS

One of the key problems in planetary system formation is understanding
how rapidly, and over what time interval Jovian planets can form. Dust
in the protoplanetary disk is critical in planetesimal formation, but
it is the gas which produces giant planets, and which is essential for
their migration. However, compared to data on the circumstellar dust,
information on the gas component is sparse, especially in the
planet-formation zone. This severely limits our ability to put
observational constraints on giant planet formation, except to note
that the process must be largely complete by 12 Myr, given the paucity
of Herbig Ae or classical T Tauri stars older than 10-12 Myr. In the
FUV, photo-excited molecular hydrogen transitions have the requisite
contrast to the stellar photosphere, accretion shock, and reflection
nebulosity, and can be traced 50-100 AU from the exciting stars in
both envelopes and outflow cavities and protoplanetary disks. Central
disk cavities, an expected consequence of planet formation, larger
than 0.1" are directly detectable in HST FUV spectra, while smaller
cavities may be detected by comparison with protoplanetary disks which
are still accreting onto their stars. We propose augmenting existing
HST coronagraphic imagery of 6 Herbig Fe and T Tauri disks with ACS
Solar-Blind Channel Lyman alpha imagery and slitless spectroscopy
simultaneously sampling the disk in molecular hydrogen and small-grain
reflection nebulosity. These data will be used to quantify the amount
of vertical stratification in these disks, to map the mass-loss
geometry from the star, and to determine whether removal of molecular
material precedes, lags, or is contemporary with clearing of the
dust.

WFPC2 10798

Dark Halos and Substructure from Arcs & Einstein Rings

The surface brightness distribution of extended gravitationally lensed
arcs and Einstein rings contains super-resolved information about the
lensed object, and, more excitingly, about the smooth and clumpy mass
distribution of the lens galaxies. The source and lens information can
non-parametrically be separated, resulting in a direct "gravitational
image" of the inner mass-distribution of cosmologically-distant
galaxies {Koopmans 2005; Koopmans et al. 2006 [astro-ph/0601628]}.
With this goal in mind, we propose deep HST ACS-F555W/F814W and
NICMOS-F160W WFC imaging of 20 new gravitational-lens systems with
spatially resolved lensed sources, of the 35 new lens systems
discovered by the Sloan Lens ACS Survey {Bolton et al. 2005} so far,
15 of which are being imaged in Cycle-14. Each system has been
selected from the SDSS and confirmed in two time- efficient HST-ACS
snapshot programs {cycle 13&14}. High-fidelity multi-color HST images
are required {not delivered by the 420s snapshots} to isolate these
lensed images {properly cleaned, dithered and extinction-corrected}
from the lens galaxy surface brightness distribution, and apply our
"gravitational maging" technique. Our sample of 35 early-type lens
galaxies to date is by far the largest, still growing, and most
uniformly selected. This minimizes selection biases and small-number
statistics, compared to smaller, often serendipitously discovered,
samples. Moreover, using the WFC provides information on the field
around the lens, higher S/N and a better understood PSF, compared with
the HRC, and one retains high spatial resolution through drizzling.
The sample of galaxy mass distributions - determined through this
method from the arcs and Einstein ring HST images - will be studied
to: {i} measure the smooth mass distribution of the lens galaxies
{dark and luminous mass are separated using the HST images and the
stellar M/L values derived from a joint stellar-dynamical analysis of
each system}; {ii} quantify statistically and individually the
incidence of mass-substructure {with or without obvious luminous
counter- parts such as dwarf galaxies}. Since dark-matter substructure
could be more prevalent at higher redshift, both results provide a
direct test of this prediction of the CDM hierarchical
structure-formation model.

FLIGHT OPERATIONS SUMMARY:

Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary
reports of potential non-nominal performance that will be
investigated.)

HSTARS:

11013 - GSAcq(1,3,1) failed to RGA Hold (Gyro Control)

The GSAcq(1,3,1) scheduled at 278/12:53:30 - 13:01:34 failed to RGA
Hold due to a Search Radius Limit Exceeded Error on FGS-1. During
OBAD2 at 278/12:45:03 attitude correction ESB
1806(T2G_OPEN_LOOP_TIMEOUT) was received at 278/12:47:14 resulting in
unplanned M2G transition at 278/12:47:08. Pre-acq OBAD2 had (RSS)
value of 3.38 arcseconds. At 278/12:48:55 Equation F2SOB flagged
indicating Stuck-on-Bottom, then back in bounds at 278/12:49:43.
Unable to execute FHST Stuck-on-Bottom Macro due to OBAD acquisition.
One (FGS Coarse Track failed -Search Radius Limit Exceeded) was
received at 278/12:59:46.

11014 - Loss of LOCK

REacq(2,3,3) at 280/09:06:48 was successful. At 09:20:02 REacq(2,3,3)
loss lock. A this time the vehicle was performing a T3 slew. The
scheduled TERM EXP was 10:00:32.

11016 - Early Loss of Lock @281/2022z

HST lost fine lock on FGS 1 and 2 at 21:14:57. P4TAKDAT (Take Data
Flag) went down at that time, causing an ACS 779 Status Buffer Message
("Fold Mechanism Move Was Blocked") to occur at 21:15:08.

GSACQ(1,2,2) at 20:31:50 was successful but mnemonics FSUBLOL and
FGSLOL underwent a long series of limit violations beginning at
20:36:17. Both of these are derived mnemonics based on QDFGSWT and
P4CNTLST ("ST Control Status"). P4CNTLST toggled between "RGA Only"
and "FGS/RGA" frequently from 20:38:01 to 21:14:49. Extracts for all
of these mnemonics are attached.

REACQ(1,2,2) at 22:07:11 failed while vehicle was LOS. Upon AOS at
22:47:15 QF1STOPF and QSTOP flags were set and 4 more ACS 779 messages
were received.

COMPLETED OPS REQUEST: (None)

COMPLETED OPS NOTES: (None)

****************** SCHEDULED***** SUCCESSFUL***** FAILURE

FGS GSacq*********** 28************* 27
FGS REacq*********** 27************* 26
OBAD with Maneuver* 110************ 110

LOSS of LOCK*************************************** 2

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS: (None)


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