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#1




EINSTEIN'S SPECIAL RELATIVITY AS CORRUPT DEDUCTION
https://www.marxists.org/reference/a...ative/ap03.htm
Albert Einstein: "From a systematic theoretical point of view, we may imagine the process of evolution of an empirical science to be a continuous process of induction. Theories are evolved and are expressed in short compass as statements of a large number of individual observations in the form of empirical laws, from which the general laws can be ascertained by comparison.. Regarded in this way, the development of a science bears some resemblance to the compilation of a classified catalogue. It is, as it were, a purely empirical enterprise. But this point of view by no means embraces the whole of the actual process ; for it slurs over the important part played by intuition and deductive thought in the development of an exact science. As soon as a science has emerged from its initial stages, theoretical advances are no longer achieved merely by a process of arrangement. Guided by empirical data, the investigator rather develops a system of thought which, in general, is built up logically from a small number of fundamental assumptions, the socalled axioms." Special relativity was indeed "built up logically from a small number of fundamental assumptions" but already its first argument amounted to reductio ad absurdum: http://www.aip.org/history/exhibits/...relativity.htm John Stachel: "But here he ran into the most blatantseeming contradiction, which I mentioned earlier when first discussing the two principles. As noted then, the MaxwellLorentz equations imply that there exists (at least) one inertial frame in which the speed of light is a constant regardless of the motion of the light source. Einstein's version of the relativity principle (minus the ether) requires that, if this is true for one inertial frame, it must be true for all inertial frames. But this seems to be nonsense. How can it happen that the speed of light relative to an observer cannot be increased or decreased if that observer moves towards or away from a light beam? Einstein states that he wrestled with this problem over a lengthy period of time, to the point of despair." Einstein managed to partially camouflage the absurdity by disfiguring space and time, but an Achilles heel remained: The moving observer measures a shift in frequency, and this shift can only be caused by a shift in the speed of light relative to the observer: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bg7O4rtlwEE "Doppler effect  when an observer moves towards a stationary source. ...the velocity of the wave relative to the observer is faster than that when it is still." http://physics.bu.edu/~redner/211sp...9_doppler.html "We will focus on sound waves in describing the Doppler effect, but it works for other waves too. (...) Let's say you, the observer, now move toward the source with velocity vO. You encounter more waves per unit time than you did before. Relative to you, the waves travel at a higher speed: v'=v+vO. The frequency of the waves you detect is higher, and is given by: f'=v'/Î»=(v+vO)/Î»." http://www.md.ucl.ac.be/didac/physiq.../doppler..html "Effet Doppler: Lorsque l'observateur ou la source de l'onde se dÃ©placent, la frÃ©quence perÃ§ue est modifiÃ©e. (...) 1.observateur mobile (v), source fixe == modification de la cÃ©lÃ©ritÃ© perÃ§ue: c' = c Â± v == f' = c'/Î»." http://www.donboscotournai.be/expo...fetDoppler.pdf "La variation de la frÃ©quence observÃ©e lorsqu'il y a mouvement relatif entre la source et l'observateur est appelÃ©e effet Doppler. (....) 6. Source immobile  Observateur en mouvement: La distance entre les crÃªtes, la longueur d'onde lambda ne change pas. Mais la vitesse des crÃªtes par rapport Ã* l'observateur change ! L'observateur se rapproche de la source: f' = V'/Î» = f(1+Vo/V). (...) L'effet Doppler peut se produire pour toutes les sortes d'ondes." http://www.hep.man.ac.uk/u/roger/PHY.../lecture18.pdf "The Doppler effect  changes in frequencies when sources or observers are in motion  is familiar to anyone who has stood at the roadside and watched (and listened) to the cars go by. It applies to all types of wave, not just sound. (...) Moving Observer. Now suppose the source is fixed but the observer is moving towards the source, with speed v. In time t, ct/Î» waves pass a fixed point. A moving point adds another vt/Î». So f'=(c+v)/Î»." http://alevelphysicstutor.com/wavdoppler.php "vO is the velocity of an observer moving towards the source. This velocity is independent of the motion of the source. Hence, the velocity of waves relative to the observer is c + vO. (...) The motion of an observer does not alter the wavelength. The increase in frequency is a result of the observer encountering more wavelengths in a given time." http://www.einsteinonline.info/spotlights/doppler Albert Einstein Institute: "The frequency of a wavelike signal  such as sound or light  depends on the movement of the sender and of the receiver. This is known as the Doppler effect. (...) Here is an animation of the receiver moving towards the source: http://www.einsteinonline.info/imag...ler_static.gif (stationary receiver) http://www.einsteinonline.info/imag...ector_blue.gif (moving receiver) By observing the two indicator lights, you can see for yourself that, once more, there is a blueshift  the pulse frequency measured at the receiver is somewhat higher than the frequency with which the pulses are sent out. This time, the distances between subsequent pulses are not affected, but still there is a frequency shift: As the receiver moves towards each pulse, the time until pulse and receiver meet up is shortened. In this particular animation, which has the receiver moving towards the source at one third the speed of the pulses themselves, four pulses are received in the time it takes the source to emit three pulses." [end of quotation] That is, the speed of the pulses relative to the stationary receiver is c = 3d/t, but relative to the moving receiver is c' = 4d/t = (4/3)c, where d is the distance between subsequent pulses and t is "the time it takes the source to emit three pulses". Clearly the speed of light (relative to the observer) is NOT independent of the speed of the observer, which means that Einstein's 1905 light postulate is false. Pentcho Valev 
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#2




EINSTEIN'S SPECIAL RELATIVITY AS CORRUPT DEDUCTION
In the real world, the speed of light (relative to the observer) does depend on the speed of the light source, as predicted by Newton's emission theory of light. Unfortunately we all live in Einstein's schizophrenic world where the speed of light is, by postulation, independent of the speed of the light source, and space and time are disfigured so as to form an efficient "protecive belt" around the false postulate:
http://bertie.ccsu.edu/naturesci/PhilSci/Lakatos.html "Lakatos distinguished between two parts of a scientific theory: its "hard core" which contains its basic assumptions (or axioms, when set out formally and explicitly), and its "protective belt", a surrounding defensive set of "ad hoc" (produced for the occasion) hypotheses. (...) In Lakatos' model, we have to explicitly take into account the "ad hoc hypotheses" which serve as the protective belt. The protective belt serves to deflect "refuting" propositions from the core assumptions..." http://marxsite.com/LK1.htm Imre Lakatos, Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes: "All scientific research programmes may be characterized by their 'hard core'. The negative heuristic of the programme forbids us to direct the modus tollens at this 'hard core'. Instead, we must use our ingenuity to articulate or even invent 'auxiliary hypotheses', which form a protective belt around this core, and we must redirect the modus tollens to these. It is this protective belt of auxiliary hypotheses which has to bear the brunt of tests and get adjusted and readjusted, or even completely replaced, to defend the thushardened core." Banesh Hoffmann is quite clear: the MichelsonMorley experiment confirms the variable speed of light predicted by Newton's emission theory of light unless there is a protective belt ("contracting lengths, local time, or Lorentz transformations") that deflects the refuting experimental evidence from the false constantspeedoflight postulate: http://books.google.com/books?id=JokgnS1JtmMC "Relativity and Its Roots", Banesh Hoffmann, p.92: "Moreover, if light consists of particles, as Einstein had suggested in his paper submitted just thirteen weeks before this one, the second principle seems absurd: A stone thrown from a speeding train can do far more damage than one thrown from a train at rest; the speed of the particle is not independent of the motion of the object emitting it. And if we take light to consist of particles and assume that these particles obey Newton's laws, they will conform to Newtonian relativity and thus automatically account for the null result of the MichelsonMorley experiment without recourse to contracting lengths, local time, or Lorentz transformations. Yet, as we have seen, Einstein resisted the temptation to account for the null result in terms of particles of light and simple, familiar Newtonian ideas, and introduced as his second postulate something that was more or less obvious when thought of in terms of waves in an ether." http://www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/papers/companion.doc John Norton: "These efforts were long misled by an exaggeration of the importance of one experiment, the MichelsonMorley experiment, even though Einstein later had trouble recalling if he even knew of the experiment prior to his 1905 paper. This one experiment, in isolation, has little force. Its null result happened to be fully compatible with Newton's own emission theory of light. Located in the context of late 19th century electrodynamics when etherbased, wave theories of light predominated, however, it presented a serious problem that exercised the greatest theoretician of the day." http://philsciarchive.pitt.edu/1743/2/Norton.pdf John Norton: "In addition to his work as editor of the Einstein papers in finding source material, Stachel assembled the many small clues that reveal Einstein's serious consideration of an emission theory of light; and he gave us the crucial insight that Einstein regarded the MichelsonMorley experiment as evidence for the principle of relativity, whereas later writers almost universally use it as support for the light postulate of special relativity. Even today, this point needs emphasis. The MichelsonMorley experiment is fully compatible with an emission theory of light that CONTRADICTS THE LIGHT POSTULATE." Pentcho Valev 
#3




EINSTEIN'S SPECIAL RELATIVITY AS CORRUPT DEDUCTION
Einstein's fundamental but invalid (the conclusion does not follow from the premises) argument:
http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/specrel/www/ ON THE ECTRODYNAMICS OF MOVING BODIES, A. Einstein, 1905: "From this there ensues the following peculiar consequence. If at the points A and B of K there are stationary clocks which, viewed in the stationary system, are synchronous; and if the clock at A is moved with the velocity v along the line AB to B, then on its arrival at B the two clocks no longer synchronize, but the clock moved from A to B lags behind the other which has remained at B by tv^2/2c^2 (up to magnitudes of fourth and higher order), t being the time occupied in the journey from A to B." Herbert Dingle noticed the invalidity and asked a fatal question: http://blog.hasslberger.com/Dingle_S...Crossroads.pdf SCIENCE AT THE CROSSROADS, Herbert Dingle, p.27: "According to the special relativity theory, as expounded by Einstein in his original paper, two similar, regularlyrunning clocks, A and B, in uniform relative motion, must work at different rates. (...) How is the slowerworking clock distinguished?" Of course, Dingle's question is rhetorical  the slowerworking clock cannot be distinguished on the basis of Einstein's 1905 postulates alone. The postulates entail that, as judged from the respective system, either clock runs slower than the other. That is, for an observer in the moving clock's system, the stationary clock at B lags behind the moving clock; for a stationary observer, the moving clock lags behind the stationary clock at B. Einstein's famous conclusions that made him a superstar, "moving clocks run slow" and "travel into the future is possible", are based on two flaws. Initially Einstein advanced his false constantspeedoflight postulate, which allowed him to validly deduce that: moving clocks run slow, as judged from the stationary system. Then he illegitimately dropped the second part of the above conclusion and informed the gullible world that: moving clocks run slow, that is, travel into the future is possible. Referring to the gullible world, Einstein once said: "I am sure that it is the mystery of nonunderstanding that appeals to them...it impresses them, it has the colour and the appeal of the mysterious": http://plus.maths.org/issue37/featur...ein/index.html John Barrow FRS: "Einstein restored faith in the unintelligibility of science. Everyone knew that Einstein had done something important in 1905 (and again in 1915) but almost nobody could tell you exactly what it was. When Einstein was interviewed for a Dutch newspaper in 1921, he attributed his mass appeal to the mystery of his work for the ordinary person: "Does it make a silly impression on me, here and yonder, about my theories of which they cannot understand a word? I think it is funny and also interesting to observe. I am sure that it is the mystery of nonunderstanding that appeals to them...it impresses them, it has the colour and the appeal of the mysterious." Relativity was a fashionable notion. It promised to sweep away old absolutist notions and refurbish science with modern ideas. In art and literature too, revolutionary changes were doing away with old conventions and standards. All things were being made new. Einstein's relativity suited the mood. Nobody got very excited about Einstein's brownian motion or his photoelectric effect but relativity promised to turn the world inside out." Pentcho Valev 
#4




EINSTEIN'S SPECIAL RELATIVITY AS CORRUPT DEDUCTION
As shown in the picture below, according to Einstein's relativity, a single MOVING clock shows less time elapsed than multiple stationary clocks as it passes them consecutively:
http://www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/teachi...y/Clocks_1.png However, if the single clock is stationary and the multiple clocks moving, Einstein's 1905 postulates entail that this time the STATIONARY clock shows less time elapsed than the multiple moving clocks. Clearly Einstein's relativity is an inconsistency  it predicts that moving clocks run both slower and faster than stationary clocks. In terms of the twin paradox, the travelling twin returns both younger and older than his stationary brother. We have reductio ad absurdum, which means that Einstein's 1905 constantspeedoflight postulate is false. The picture has been taken from this site: http://www.pitt.edu/~jdnorton/teachi...ity/index.html Let us now imagine that all ants spread out on the closed polygonal line have clocks, and assume for the moment that the clocks/ants are STATIONARY: http://cliparts101.com/files/131/AB2..._rectangle.png Einstein's 1905 constantspeedoflight postulate entails that, if a single moving ant travels along the polygonal line and its clock is consecutively checked against the multiple stationary ants' clocks, the travelling clock will show less and less time elapsed than the stationary clocks. In terms of the twin paradox, the single moving ant gets younger and younger than stationary brothers it consecutively meets. Let us change the scenario: the multiple clocks/ants are now MOVING  they travel with constant speed along the closed polygonal line and pass a single stationary clock/ant located in the middle of one of the sides of the polygon. Again, the single (stationary this time) clock is consecutively checked against the multiple (moving this time) clocks passing it. Einstein's 1905 constantspeedoflight postulate entails that the single stationary clock will show less and less time elapsed than the multiple moving clocks consecutively passing it. In terms of the twin paradox, the single stationary ant gets younger and younger than moving brothers it consecutively meets. Clearly Einstein's 1905 constantspeedoflight postulate entails absurdities and should be rejected as false. Pentcho Valev 
#5




EINSTEIN'S SPECIAL RELATIVITY AS CORRUPT DEDUCTION
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vwiayZ3sH7U
Edward Teller: "Einstein didn't know what he was talking about..." ....or was just lying, or both. Here is the proof: In 1887 (prior to FitzGerald and Lorentz advancing the ad hoc length contraction hypothesis), the MichelsonMorley experiment unequivocally confirmed the variable speed of light predicted by Newton's emission theory of light and refuted the constant (independent of the speed of the light source) speed of light predicted by the immobile ether theory and later adopted by Einstein as his special relativity's second postulate: http://philsciarchive.pitt.edu/1743/2/Norton.pdf John Norton: "In addition to his work as editor of the Einstein papers in finding source material, Stachel assembled the many small clues that reveal Einstein's serious consideration of an emission theory of light; and he gave us the crucial insight that Einstein regarded the MichelsonMorley experiment as evidence for the principle of relativity, whereas later writers almost universally use it as support for the light postulate of special relativity. Even today, this point needs emphasis. The MichelsonMorley experiment is fully compatible with an emission theory of light that contradicts the light postulate." As John Norton suggests, today's Einsteinians ("later writers") are "almost universally" lying about the MichelsonMorley experiment  they teach that the experiment has confirmed the constancy of the speed of light. How about Einstein? Was he honest, as Stachel and Norton believe? Either Einstein was the author of the hoax, or, as Edward Teller suggests, Einstein didn't know what he was talking about (or both). The following text exposes Einstein shamelessly teaching in 1921 that " Michelson showed that relative to the moving coordinate system K1, the light traveled with the same velocity as relative to K ": http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstrac...66838A 639EDE The New York Times, April 19, 1921: "The special relativity arose from the question of whether light had an invariable velocity in free space, he [Einstein] said. The velocity of light could only be measured relative to a body or a coordinate system. He sketched a coordinate system K to which light had a velocity C. Whether the system was in motion or not was the fundamental principle. This has been developed through the researches of Maxwell and Lorentz, the principle of the constancy of the velocity of light having been based on many of their experiments. But did it hold for only one system? he asked. He gave the example of a street and a vehicle moving on that street. If the velocity of light was C for the street was it also C for the vehicle? If a second coordinate system K was introduced, moving with the velocity V, did light have the velocity of C here? When the light traveled the system moved with it, so it would appear that light moved slower and the principle apparently did not hold. Many famous experiments had been made on this point. Michelson showed that relative to the moving coordinate system K1, the light traveled with the same velocity as relative to K, which is contrary to the above observation. How could this be reconciled? Professor Einstein asked." Pentcho Valev 
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