A Space & astronomy forum. SpaceBanter.com

If this is your first visit, be sure to check out the FAQ by clicking the link above. You may have to register before you can post: click the register link above to proceed. To start viewing messages, select the forum that you want to visit from the selection below.

Go Back   Home » SpaceBanter.com forum » Astronomy and Astrophysics » Hubble
Site Map Home Authors List Search Today's Posts Mark Forums Read Web Partners

Daily #4060



 
 
Thread Tools Display Modes
  #1  
Old March 1st 06, 02:09 PM posted to sci.astro.hubble
external usenet poster
 
Posts: n/a
Default Daily #4060

HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE - Continuing to collect World Class Science

DAILY REPORT #4060

PERIOD COVERED: UT February 28, 2006 (DOY 059)

OBSERVATIONS SCHEDULED

ACS/HRC 10556

Neutral Gas at Redshift z=0.5

Damped Lyman-alpha systems {DLAs} are used to track the bulk of the
neutral hydrogen gas in the Universe. Prior to HST UV spectroscopy,
they could only be studied from the ground at redshifts z1.65.
However, HST has now permitted us to discover 41 DLAs at z1.65 in our
previous surveys. Followup studies of these systems are providing a
wealth of information about the evolution of the neutral gas phase
component of the Universe. But one problem is that these 41
low-redshift systems are spread over a wide range of redshifts
spanning nearly 70% of the age of the Universe. Consequently, past
surveys for low-redshift DLAs have not been able to offer very good
precision in any small redshift regime. Here we propose an ACS-HRC-
PR200L spectroscopic survey in the redshift interval z=[0.37, 0.7]
which we estimate will permit us to discover another 41 DLAs. This
will not only allow us to double the number of low-redshift DLAs, but
it will also provide a relatively high-precision regime in the
low-redshift Universe that can be used to anchor evolutionary studies.
Fortunately DLAs have high absorption equivalent width, so
ACS-HRC-PR200L has high-enough resoultion to perform this proposed
MgII-selected DLA survey.

ACS/SBC 10507

High resolution imaging of Jupiter's diffuse auroral emissions inside
and outside the main oval during solar

The analysis of HST-STIS FUV images has greatly and quickly advanced
our knowledge of the magnetospheric mechanisms producing the auroral
emissions on the giant planets. However, these studies were limited to
the brightest emissions and very little has been said about the
fainter emissions, mainly because of the lower S/N. We propose to
image the faint auroral emissions on Jupiter which could not be
observed with STIS. We will take full advantage of ACS/SBC's higher
sensitivity to observe the diffuse auroral FUV emissions appearing
poleward and directly equatorward of Jupiter's main auroral oval in
the northern hemisphere. This proposal has the potential to reveal new
magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling mechanisms especially those
involving solar wind interactions with a giant planet.

ACS/WFC 10496

Decelerating and Dustfree: Efficient Dark Energy Studies with
Supernovae and Clusters

We propose a novel HST approach to obtain a dramatically more useful
"dust free" Type Ia supernovae {SNe Ia} dataset than available with
the previous GOODS searches. Moreover, this approach provides a
strikingly more efficient search-and-follow-up that is primarily pre-
scheduled. The resulting dark energy measurements do not share the
major systematic uncertainty at these redshifts, that of the
extinction correction with a prior. By targeting massive galaxy
clusters at z 1 we obtain a five-times higher efficiency in
detection of Type Ia supernovae in ellipticals, providing a
well-understood host galaxy environment. These same deep cluster
images then also yield fundamental calibrations required for future
weak lensing and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich measurements of dark energy, as
well as an entire program of cluster studies. The data will make
possible a factor of two improvement on supernova constraints on dark
energy time variation, and much larger improvement in systematic
uncertainty. They will provide both a cluster dataset and a SN Ia
dataset that will be a longstanding scientific resource.

ACS/WFC 10515

The Unique Star Cluster System of M85

Even with its long history as one of the pillars of modern astronomy,
the study of star clusters has continued to reveal new and surprising
things. Over the past decade, numerous programs with HST have shown
that extragalactic star clusters powerfully probe the processes of
galactic formation, evolution, and destruction. The diversity of star
cluster systems is a testament to the rich variation in galaxy
properties. During the course of the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, we have
discovered that the early-type galaxy M85 has a system of star
clusters unlike any other galaxy studied to date. Hundreds of star
clusters in M85 are fainter and more extended than typical globular
clusters, and have no local analog. We propose deep optical- infrared
imaging with ACS and NICMOS to obtain ages, metallicities,
luminosities, and sizes of unprecedented precision to characterize
these new star clusters and unravel the evolutionary state of M85 that
gave rise to them.

ACS/WFC 10543

Microlensing in M87 and the Virgo Cluster

Resolving the nature of dark matter is an urgent problem. The results
of the MACHO survey of the Milky Way dark halo toward the LMC indicate
that a significant fraction of the halo consists of stellar mass
objects. The VATT/Columbia survey of M31 finds a similar lens fraction
in the M31 dark halo. We propose a series of observations with ACS
that will provide the most thorough search for microlensing toward
M87, the central elliptical galaxy of the Virgo cluster. This program
is optimized for lenses in the mass range from 0.01 to 1.0 solar
masses. By comparing with archival data, we can detect lenses as
massive as 100 solar masses, such as the remnants of the first stars.
These observations will have at least 15 times more sensitivity to
microlensing than any previous survey, e.g. using WFPC2. This is due
to the factor of 2 larger area, factor of more than 4 more sensitivity
in the I-band, superior pixel scale and longer baseline of
observations. Based on the halo microlensing results in the Milky Way
and M31, we might expect that galaxy collisions and stripping would
populate the overall cluster halo with a large number of stellar mass
objects. This program would determine definitively if such objects
compose the cluster dark matter at the level seen in the Milky Way. A
negative result would indicate that such objects do not populate the
intracluster medium, and may indicate that galaxy harassment is not as
vigorous as expected. We can measure the level of events due to the
M87 halo: this would be the best exploration to date of such a lens
population in an elliptical galaxy. Star-star lensing should also be
detectable. About 20 erupting classical novae will be seen, allowing
to determine the definitive nova rate for this giant elliptical
galaxy. We will determine if our recent HST detection of an M87
globular cluster nova was a fluke, or indicative of a 100x higher rate
of incidence of cataclysmic variables and nova eruptions in globulars
than previously believed. We will examine the populations of variable
stars, and will be able to cleanly separate them from microlensing.

ACS/WFC 10587

Measuring the Mass Dependence of Early-Type Galaxy Structure

We propose two-color ACS-WFC Snapshot observations of a sample of 118
candidate early- type gravitational lens galaxies. Our lens-candidate
sample is selected to yield {in combination with earlier results} an
approximately uniform final distribution of 40 early-type strong
lenses across a wide range of masses, with velocity dispersions {a
dynamical proxy for mass} ranging from 125 to 300 km/s. The proposed
program will deliver the first significant sample of low-mass
gravitational lenses. All of our candidates have known lens and source
redshifts from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, and all are bright
enough to permit detailed photometric and stellar- dynamical
observation. We will constrain the luminous and dark-matter mass
profiles of confirmed lenses using lensed-image geometry and
lens-galaxy structural/photometric measurements from HST imaging in
combination with dynamical measurements from spatially resolved
ground-based follow-up spectroscopy. Hence we will determine, in
unprecedented detail, the dependence of early-type galaxy mass
structure and mass-to-light ratio upon galaxy mass. These results will
allow us to directly test theoretical predictions for halo
concentration and star-formation efficiency as a function of mass and
for the existence of a cuspy inner dark- matter component, and will
illuminate the structural explanation behind the fundamental plane of
early-type galaxies. The lens-candidate selection and confirmation
strategy that we propose has been proven successful for high-mass
galaxies by our Cycle 13 Snapshot program {10174}. The program that we
propose here will produce a complementary and unprecedented lens
sample spanning a wide range of lens-galaxy masses.

FGS 10480

Parallaxes of Extreme Halo Subgiants: Calibrating Globular Cluster
Distances and the Ages of the Oldest

The ages of the oldest stars are a key constraint on the evolution of
our Galaxy, the history of star formation, and cosmological models.
These ages are usually determined from globular clusters. However, it
is alternatively possible to determine ages of extreme Population II
subgiants in the solar neighborhood based on trigonometric parallaxes,
without any recourse to clusters. This approach completely avoids the
vexing issues of cluster distances, reddenings, and chemical
compositions. There are 3 known nearby, extremely metal-deficient Pop
II subgiants with Hipparcos parallax errors of 6-11% which are
available for such age determinations. At present, based on the latest
isochrones, the derived ages of these stars {HD 84937, HD 132475, and
HD 140283} are all close to 14 Gyr, uncomfortably close to or higher
than current estimates of the age of the universe. However, the errors
in the Hipparcos parallaxes imply uncertainties of at least 2 Gyr in
the ages of the 3 stars. We propose to measure parallaxes of these
three Pop II subgiants using HST's Fine Guidance Sensor 1R. We expect
to reduce the Hipparcos parallax error bars by factors of 5-6,
providing the most stringent test yet of current theoretical stellar
models of Pop II stars and pushing the age uncertainties to below 0.5
Gyr. These data will also provide a major new constraint on the
distance scale of globular clusters, with wide implications for
stellar evolution and the calibration of Pop II standard candles. The
ages of the oldest stars are a key constraint on the evolution of our
Galaxy, the history of star formation, and cosmological models. These
ages are usually determined from globular clusters. However, it is
alternatively possible to determine ages of extreme Population II
subgiants in the solar neighborhood based on trigonometric parallaxes,
without any recourse to clusters. This approach completely avoids the
vexing issues of cluster distances, reddenings, and chemical
compositions. There are 3 known nearby, extremely metal- deficient Pop
II subgiants with Hipparcos parallax errors of 6-11% which are
available for such age determinations. At present, based on the latest
isochrones, the derived ages of these stars {HD 84937, HD 132475, and
HD 140283} are all close to 14 Gyr, uncomfortably close to or higher
than current estimates of the age of the universe. However, the errors
in the Hipparcos parallaxes imply uncertainties of at least 2 Gyr in
the ages of the 3 stars. We propose to measure parallaxes of these
three Pop II subgiants using HST's Fine Guidance Sensor 1R. We expect
to reduce the Hipparcos parallax error bars by factors of 5-6,
providing the most stringent test yet of current theoretical stellar
models of Pop II stars and pushing the age uncertainties to below 0.5
Gyr. These data will also provide a major new constraint on the
distance scale of globular clusters, with wide implications for
stellar evolution and the calibration of Pop II standard candles.

NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 8793

NICMOS Post-SAA calibration - CR Persistence Part 4

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of
NICMOS. Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA
contour 23, and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50
minutes of coming out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in
parallel in all three NICMOS Cameras. The POST-SAA darks will be
non-standard reference files available to users with a USEAFTER
date/time mark. The keyword 'USEAFTER=date/time' will also be added to
the header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword must be populated
with the time, in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8
times per day so each POST-SAA DARK will need to have the appropriate
time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both the raw
and processed images will be archived as POST-SAA DARKSs. Generally we
expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within
50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to remove the CR
persistence from the science images. Each observation will need its
own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the
NICMOS detectors.

NIC2 10418

Morphologies and Color Gradients of Galaxies with the Oldest Stellar
Populations at High Redshifts

We have isolated a sample of 9 luminous {~2L*} galaxies with the very
oldest stellar populations at their respective redshifts. The galaxies
have been found in radio-source fields chosen to be at the key
redshifts z~1.5 and z~2.5, which allow the cleanest separation of old
stellar populations from highly reddened starbursts with colors
derived from standard filter combinations. Ground-based observations
in excellent seeing and with adaptive optics of 3 of these galaxies
indicate that all 3 are dominated by well relaxed disks of old stars,
suggesting that the first large stellar systems to form in the
universe were disks in which star formation proceeded extremely
rapidly and efficiently. In order to test this conjecture, we are
requesting NICMOS2 exposures of our sample to obtain high S/N imaging
in the F160W filter to determine detailed morphologies of the old
stellar population, coupled with either NICMOS2 F110W or ACS F814W
exposures {depending on redshift} to determine color gradients and/or
other systematic color variations that might provide clues to
formation processes.

WFPC2 10608

Probing the star formation law in the extreme outer limits of M83, a
prototypical XUV-disk galaxy

The Galaxy Evolution Explorer {GALEX} has discovered a new sub-class
of spiral galaxy, which we refer to as extended UV-disk {XUV-disk}
galaxies. They are distinguished by conspicuous UV-bright star
clusters located at galactocentric radii extending to many times the
optical {R25} extent, and appear to represent a population of spiral
galaxies still actively building, or augmenting, their stellar disk.
However, XUV-disks pose a mystery in the form of a relative lack of
HII regions {traced by H-alpha emission} associated with outer disk,
UV-bright stellar clusters. M83 is an XUV-disk prototype and the focus
of this proposal. It has an H-alpha surface brightness profile
characterized by a steep decline at the radius beyond which the
gaseous disk is thought to become dynamically stable {against collapse
and ensuing star formation}, but GALEX UV profiles show no "edge" at
this location. Our HST study of M83 aims to resolve this puzzling
discrepancy, confirmed in several XUV-disks, by searching for
Lyman-continuum producing O stars that are either absent or present
without nebulosity. HST provides the only means of resolving
individual massive stars in the FUV band at M83's distance. Without
HST, we lose the critical ability to photometrically classify O and B
stars. Our multiwavelength observations will also constrain the
history of star formation in the outer disk over Gyr timescales by
characterizing the evolved stellar population, both using resolved
giants and color analysis of the diffuse background.

WFPC2 10745

WFPC2 CYCLE 14 INTERNAL MONITOR

This calibration proposal is the Cycle 14 routine internal monitor for
WFPC2, to be run weekly to monitor the health of the cameras. A
variety of internal exposures are obtained in order to provide a
monitor of the integrity of the CCD camera electronics in both bays
{both gain 7 and gain 15 -- to test stability of gains and bias
levels}, a test for quantum efficiency in the CCDs, and a monitor for
possible buildup of contaminants on the CCD windows. These also
provide raw data for generating annual super-bias reference files for
the calibration pipeline.

WFPC2 10751

WFPC2 CYCLE 14 Intflat Linearity Check and Filter Rotation Anomaly
Monitor

Intflat observations will be taken to provide a linearity check: the
linearity test consists of a series of intflats in F555W, in each gain
and each shutter. A combination of intflats, visflats, and earthflats
will be used to check the repeatability of filter wheel motions.
{Intflat sequences tied to decons, visits 1-18 in prop 10363, have
been moved to the cycle 14 decon proposal 10744 for easier
scheduling.} Note: long-exposure WFPC2 intflats must be scheduled
during ACS anneals to prevent stray light from the WFPC2 lamps from
contaminating long ACS external exposures.

FLIGHT OPERATIONS SUMMARY:

Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary
reports of potential non-nominal performance that will be
investigated.)

HSTARS:

10153 - GSACQ(2,1,2) fine lock backup, scan step limit exceeded on FGS
2 @059/1552z

Upon acquisition of signal at 15:52:16 HST was in fine lock on FGS 1
only. GSACQ(2,1,2) at 059/15:35:34 ended in fine lock backup on FGS 1
due to scan step limit exceeded on FGS 2.

10152 - GSACQ(2,1,2) failed to RG control

GSac(2,1,2) scheduled at 059/09:22:35 failed to RGA control. There
were no SRLEX or SSLEX flags. Also there were no ESB messages. OBAD1
showed errors of V1=-1770.37, V2=-1940.68, V3=-547.82, RSS=2683.39.
OBAD2 showed errors of V1=6.32, V2=-5.76, V3=-0.22, RSS=8.55. The Map
at 09:29:50 showed errors of V1=1.74, V2=-0.82, V3=-6.43, RSS=6.71

COMPLETED OPS REQUEST: (None)

COMPLETED OPS NOTES: (None)

SCHEDULED SUCCESSFUL FAILURE TIMES
FGS GSacq 07 06 @059/0922
(HSTAR 10152)
FGS
REacq 08 05
@059/1055,1233z,1409z (HSTAR 10152)
OBAD with Maneuver 30 30

SIGNIFICANT EVENTS: (None)

Ads
 




Thread Tools
Display Modes

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

vB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is Off
Forum Jump

Similar Threads
Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post
OhOh, Say, Can You See? Ed Conrad Misc 6 January 27th 06 08:41 PM
Judge Jones Has Been Reading the Wrong Books -- Intelligent Design vs. Evolution... Ed Conrad Amateur Astronomy 0 December 22nd 05 09:38 AM
BEST CHRISTMAS PRESENT OF THEM ALL . . . Ed Conrad Amateur Astronomy 10 December 21st 05 01:55 PM
THE BEST CHRISTMAS PRESENT OF ALL Ed Conrad Astronomy Misc 2 December 20th 05 02:31 AM
Ed Conrad's NEW Letter to Prof. Michael Behe Ed Conrad Astronomy Misc 0 June 21st 05 10:50 AM


All times are GMT +1. The time now is 11:53 PM.


Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.6.4
Copyright ©2000 - 2022, Jelsoft Enterprises Ltd.
Copyright 2004-2022 SpaceBanter.com.
The comments are property of their posters.