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Bassford, Lynn December 10th 07 04:12 PM

Daily Rpt #4503
HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE - Continuing to collect World Class Science

DAILY REPORT*** # 4503

PERIOD COVERED: UT December 7, 8 & 9, 2007 (DOY 341,342,343)


NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 8795

NICMOS Post-SAA calibration - CR Persistence Part 6

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of
NICMOS. Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA
contour 23, and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50
minutes of coming out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in
parallel in all three NICMOS Cameras. The POST-SAA darks will be non-
standard reference files available to users with a USEAFTER date/time
mark. The keyword 'USEAFTER=date/time' will also be added to the
header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword must be populated with
the time, in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8
times per day so each POST-SAA DARK will need to have the appropriate
time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both the raw
and processed images will be archived as POST-SAA DARKSs. Generally we
expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within
50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to remove the CR
persistence from the science i mages. Each observation will need its
own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the
NICMOS detectors.

NIC1/NIC2/NIC3 8794

NICMOS Post-SAA calibration - CR Persistence Part 5

A new procedure proposed to alleviate the CR-persistence problem of
NICMOS. Dark frames will be obtained immediately upon exiting the SAA
contour 23, and every time a NICMOS exposure is scheduled within 50
minutes of coming out of the SAA. The darks will be obtained in
parallel in all three NICMOS Cameras. The POST-SAA darks will be non-
standard reference files available to users with a USEAFTER date/time
mark. The keyword 'USEAFTER=date/time' will also be added to the
header of each POST-SAA DARK frame. The keyword must be populated with
the time, in addition to the date, because HST crosses the SAA ~8
times per day so each POST-SAA DARK will need to have the appropriate
time specified, for users to identify the ones they need. Both the raw
and processed images will be archived as POST-SAA DARKs. Generally we
expect that all NICMOS science/calibration observations started within
50 minutes of leaving an SAA will need such maps to remove the CR
persistence from the science images. Each observation will need its
own CRMAP, as different SAA passages leave different imprints on the
NICMOS detectors.

WFPC2 11361

Hubble Heritage Observations of Mars at 2007 Opposition

We will obtain images of Mars at opposition in December 2007.

ACS/SBC 11309

Chemical Composition of an Exo-Neptune

The recent discovery that the Neptune-like exoplanet GJ 436 b transits
its host star has presented us the first chance to observationally
study ice giant formation beyond our solar system {Gillon et al.
2007}. Using Directors Discretionary time, we propose to obtain a
high-precision light curve of the GJ 436 b transit with the FGS in
order to improve the current radius determination for this planet.
Measuring a precise radius for GJ 436 b will allow us to ascertain
whether the planet has a pure water vapor or H/He envelope like Uranus
and Neptune. Knowing this will constrain its formation and evolution
and help place our own solar system ice giants in a broader context.
Additionally, a precise radius for GJ 436 b will be a necessity for
interpreting the certain follow-up observations of this unique

FGS 11213

Distances to Eclipsing M Dwarf Binaries

We propose HST FGS observations to measure accurate distances of 5
nearby M dwarf eclipsing binary systems, from which model-independent
luminosities can be calculated. These objects have either poor or no
existing parallax measurements. FGS parallax determinations for these
systems, with their existing dynamic masses determined to better than
0.5%, would serve as model-independent anchor points for the low-mass
end of the mass-luminosity diagram.

FGS 11210

The Architecture of Exoplanetary Systems

Are all planetary systems coplanar? Concordance cosmogony makes that
prediction. It is, however, a prediction of extrasolar planetary
system architecture as yet untested by direct observation for main
sequence stars other than the Sun. To provide such a test, we propose
to carry out FGS astrometric studies on four stars hosting seven
companions. Our understanding of the planet formation process will
grow as we match not only system architecture, but formed planet mass
and true distance from the primary with host star characteristics for
a wide variety of host stars and exoplanet masses. We propose that a
series of FGS astrometric observations with demonstrated 1 millisecond
of arc per- observation precision can establish the degree of
coplanarity and component true masses for four extrasolar systems: HD
202206 {brown dwarf+planet}; HD 128311 {planet+planet}, HD 160691 = mu
Arae {planet+planet}, and HD 222404AB = gamma Cephei {planet+star}. In
each case the companion is identified as such by assuming that the
minimum mass is the actual mass. For the last target, a known stellar
binary system, the companion orbit is stable only if coplanar with the
AB binary orbit.

WFPC2 11202

The Structure of Early-type Galaxies: 0.1-100 Effective Radii

The structure, formation and evolution of early-type galaxies is still
largely an open problem in cosmology: how does the Universe evolve
from large linear scales dominated by dark matter to the highly
non-linear scales of galaxies, where baryons and dark matter both play
important, interacting, roles? To understand the complex physical
processes involved in their formation scenario, and why they have the
tight scaling relations that we observe today {e.g. the Fundamental
Plane}, it is critically important not only to understand their
stellar structure, but also their dark-matter distribution from the
smallest to the largest scales. Over the last three years the SLACS
collaboration has developed a toolbox to tackle these issues in a
unique and encompassing way by combining new non-parametric strong
lensing techniques, stellar dynamics, and most recently weak
gravitational lensing, with high-quality Hubble Space Telescope
imaging and VLT/Keck spectroscopic data of early-type lens systems.
This allows us to break degeneracies that are inherent to each of
these techniques separately and probe the mass structure of early-type
galaxies from 0.1 to 100 effective radii. The large dynamic range to
which lensing is sensitive allows us both to probe the clumpy
substructure of these galaxies, as well as their low-density outer
haloes. These methods have convincingly been demonstrated, by our
team, using smaller pilot-samples of SLACS lens systems with HST data.
In this proposal, we request observing time with WFPC2 and NICMOS to
observe 53 strong lens systems from SLACS, to obtain complete
multi-color imaging for each system. This would bring the total number
of SLACS lens systems to 87 with completed HST imaging and effectively
doubles the known number of galaxy-scale strong lenses. The deep HST
images enable us to fully exploit our new techniques, beat down
low-number statistics, and probe the structure and evolution of
early-type galaxies, not only with a uniform data-set an order of
magnitude larger than what is available now, but also with a fully
coherent and self-consistent methodological approach!

NIC2 11157

NICMOS Imaging Survey of Dusty Debris Around Nearby Stars Across the
Stellar Mass Spectrum

Association of planetary systems with dusty debris disks is now quite
secure, and advances in our understanding of planet formation and
evolution can be achieved by the identification and characterization
of an ensemble of debris disks orbiting a range of central stars with
different masses and ages. Imaging debris disks in starlight scattered
by dust grains remains technically challenging so that only about a
dozen systems have thus far been imaged. A further advance in this
field needs an increased number of imaged debris disks. However, the
technical challenge of such observations, even with the superb
combination of HST and NICMOS, requires the best targets. Recent HST
imaging investigations of debris disks were sample-limited not limited
by the technology used. We performed a search for debris disks from a
IRAS/Hipparcos cross correlation which involved an exhaustive
background contamination check to weed out false excess stars. Out of
~140 identified debris disks, we selected 22 best targets in terms of
dust optical depth and disk angular size. Our target sample represents
the best currently available target set in terms of both disk
brightness and resolvability. For example, our targets have higher
dust optical depth, in general, than newly identified Spitzer disks.
Also, our targets cover a wider range of central star ages and masses
than previous debris disk surveys. This will help us to investigate
planetary system formation and evolution across the stellar mass
spectrum. The technical feasibility of this program in two-gyro mode
guiding has been proven with on- orbit calibration and science
observations during HST cycles 13, 14, and 15.

NIC2 11142

Revealing the Physical Nature of Infrared Luminous Galaxies at 0.3

We aim to determine physical properties of IR luminous galaxies at
0.3z2.7 by requesting coordinated HST/NIC2 and MIPS 70um
observations of a unique, 24um flux- limited sample with complete
Spitzer mid-IR spectroscopy. The 150 sources investigated in this
program have S{24um} 0.8mJy and their mid-IR spectra have already
provided the majority targets with spectroscopic redshifts
{0.3z2.7}. The proposed 150~orbits of NIC2 and 66~hours of MIPS 70um
will provide the physical measurements of the light distribution at
the rest-frame ~8000A and better estimates of the bolometric
luminosity. Combining these parameters together with the rich suite of
spectral diagnostics from the mid-IR spectra, we will {1} measure how
common mergers are among LIRGs and ULIRGs at 0.3z2.7, and establish
if major mergers are the drivers of z1 ULIRGs, as in the local
Universe. {2} study the co-evolution of star formation and blackhole
accretion by investigating the relations between the fraction of
starburst/AGN measured from mid-IR spectra vs. HST morphologies,
L{bol} and z. {3} obtain the current best estimates of the far- IR
emission, thus L{bol} for this sample, and establish if the relative
contribution of mid-to- far IR dust emission is correlated with
morphology {resolved vs. unresolved}.

WFPC2 11134

WFPC2 Tidal Tail Survey: Probing Star Cluster Formation on the Edge

The spectacular HST images of the interiors of merging galaxies such
as the Antennae and NGC 7252 have revealed rich and diverse
populations of star clusters created over the course of the
interaction. Intriguingly, our WFPC2 study of tidal tails in these and
other interacting pairs has shown that star cluster birth in the tails
does not follow a similarly straightforward evolution. In fact,
cluster formation in these relatively sparse environments is not
guaranteed -- only one of six tails in our initial study showed
evidence for a significant population of young star clusters. The tail
environment thus offers the opportunity to probe star cluster
formation on the edge of the physical parameter space {e.g., of
stellar and gas mass, density, and pressure} that permits it to occur.
We propose to significantly extend our pilot sample of optically
bright, gas-rich tidal tails by a factor of 4 in number to include a
more diverse population of tails, encompassing major and minor
mergers, gas-rich and gas-poor tails, as well as early, late, and
merged interaction stages. With 21 orbits of HST WFPC2 imaging in the
F606W and F814W filters, we can identify, roughly age-date, and
measure sizes of star clusters to determine what physical parameters
affect star cluster formation. WFPC2 imaging has been used effectively
in our initial study of four mergers, and it will be possible in this
program to reach similar limits of Mv=-8.5 for each of 16 more tails.
With the much larger sample we expect to isolate which factors, such
as merger stage, HI content, and merger mass ratio, drive the
formation of star clusters.

WFPC2 11130

AGNs with Intermediate-mass Black Holes: Testing the Black Hole-Bulge
Paradigm, Part II

The recent progress in the study of central black holes in galactic
nuclei has led to a general consensus that supermassive {10^6-10^9
solar mass} black holes are closely connected with the formation and
evolutionary history of large galaxies, especially their bulge
component. Two outstanding issues, however, remain unresolved. Can
central black holes form in the absence of a bulge? And does the mass
function of central black holes extend below 10^6 solar masses?
Intermediate-mass black holes {10^6 solar masses}, if they exist, may
offer important clues to the nature of the seeds of supermassive black
holes. Using the SDSS, our group has successfully uncovered a new
population of AGNs with intermediate-mass black holes that reside in
low-luminosity galaxies. However, very little is known about the
detailed morphologies or structural parameters of the host galaxies
themselves, including the crucial question of whether they have bulges
or not. Surprisingly, the majority of the targets of our Cycle 14
pilot program have structural properties similar to dwarf elliptical
galaxies. The statistics from this initial study, however, are really
too sparse to reach definitive conclusions on this important new class
of black holes. We wish to extend this study to a larger sample, by
using the Snapshot mode to obtain WFPC2 F814W images from a parent
sample of 175 AGNs with intermediate-mass black holes selected from
our final SDSS search. We are particularly keen to determine whether
the hosts contain bulges, and if so, how the fundamental plane
properties of the host depend on the mass of their central black
holes. We will also investigate the environment of this unique class
of AGNs.

WFPC2 11124

The Origin of QSO Absorption Lines from QSOs

We propose using WFPC2 to image the fields of 10 redshift z ~ 0.7
foreground {FG} QSOs which lie within ~29-151 kpc of the sightlines to
high-z background {BG} QSOs. A surprisingly high fraction of the BG
QSO spectra show strong MgII {2796,2803} absorption lines at precisely
the same redshifts as the FG QSOs. The high resolution capabilities of
WFPC2 are needed to understand the origin of these absorption systems,
in two ways. First, we wish to explore the FG QSO environment as close
as possible to the position of the BG QSO, to search for interloping
group or cluster galaxies which might be responsible for the
absorption, or irregularly shaped post-merger debris between the FG
and BG QSO which may indicate the presence of large amount of
disrupted gas along a sightline. Similarly, high resolution images are
needed to search for signs of tidal interactions between any galaxies
which might be found close to the FG QSO. Such features might provide
evidence of young merging events causing the start of QSO duty cycles
and producing outflows from the central AGN. Such winds may be
responsible for the observed absorption lines. Second, we seek to
measure the intrinsic parameters of the FG QSO host galaxy, such as
luminosity and morphology, to correlate with the properties of the
MgII absorption lines. We wish to observe each field through the F814W
filter, close to the rest-frame B-band of the FG QSO. These blue data
can reveal enhanced star formation regions close to the nucleus of the
host galaxy, which may be indicative of galaxy mergers with the FG QSO
host. The FG QSO environment offers quite a different set of phenomena
which might be responsible for MgII absorption, providing an important
comparison to studies of MgII absorption from regular field galaxies.

WFPC2 11084

Probing the Least Luminous Galaxies in the Local Universe

We propose to obtain deep color-magnitude data of eight new Local
Group galaxies which we recently discovered: Andromeda XI, Andromeda
XII, and Andromeda XIII {satellites of M31}; Canes Venatici I, Canes
Venatici II, Hercules, and Leo IV {satellites of the Milky Way}; and
Leo T, a new "free-floating" Local Group dwarf spheroidal with
evidence for recent star formation and associated H I gas. These
represent the least luminous galaxies known at *any* redshift, and are
the only accessible laboratories for studying this extreme regime of
galaxy formation. With deep WFPC-2 F606W and F814W pointings at their
centers, we will determine whether these objects contain single or
multiple age stellar populations, as well as whether these objects
display a range of metallicities.

WFPC2 11029

WFPC2 CYCLE 15 Intflat Linearity Check and Filter Rotation Anomaly

Intflat observations will be taken to provide a linearity check: the
linearity test consists of a series of intflats in F555W, in each gain
and each shutter. A combination of intflats, visflats, and earthflats
will be used to check the repeatability of filter wheel motions.
{Intflat sequences tied to decons, visits 1-18 in prop 10363, have
been moved to the cycle 15 decon proposal xxxx for easier scheduling.}
Note: long-exposure WFPC2 intflats must be scheduled during ACS
anneals to prevent stray light from the WFPC2 lamps from contaminating
long ACS external exposures.

WFPC2 11002

A Census of LIRGs in Clusters of Galaxies in the First Half of the
Universe from the IRAC Shallow Survey

The incidence of LIRGs and ULIRGs is roughly two orders of magnitude
higher in the field at redshift z 1, and at these redshifts such
objects dominate the global star formation activity. Mergers which
fuel such activity might be expected to enhance the frequency of LIRGs
in dense environments. We propose to use MIPS to obtain a census of
LIRGs in z 1 galaxy clusters from a well defined sample found in the
IRAC Shallow Survey. Supporting IRAC and HST ACS data are also

WFPC2 10915

ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey

Existing HST observations of nearby galaxies comprise a sparse and
highly non-uniform archive, making comprehensive comparative studies
among galaxies essentially impossible. We propose to secure HST's
lasting impact on the study of nearby galaxies by undertaking a
systematic, complete, and carefully crafted imaging survey of ALL
galaxies in the Local Universe outside the Local Group. The resulting
images will allow unprecedented measurements of: {1} the star
formation history {SFH} of a 100 Mpc^3 volume of the Universe with a
time resolution of Delta[log{t}]=0.25; {2} correlations between
spatially resolved SFHs and environment; {3} the structure and
properties of thick disks and stellar halos; and {4} the color
distributions, sizes, and specific frequencies of globular and disk
clusters as a function of galaxy mass and environment. To reach these
goals, we will use a combination of wide-field tiling and pointed deep
imaging to obtain uniform data on all 72 galaxies within a
volume-limited sample extending to ~3.5 Mpc, with an extension to the
M81 group. For each galaxy, the wide-field imaging will cover out to
~1.5 times the optical radius and will reach photometric depths of at
least 2 magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch throughout
the limits of the survey volume. One additional deep pointing per
galaxy will reach SNR~10 for red clump stars, sufficient to recover
the ancient SFH from the color-magnitude diagram. This proposal will
produce photometric information for ~100 million stars {comparable to
the number in the SDSS survey} and uniform multi- color images of half
a square degree of sky. The resulting archive will establish the
fundamental optical database for nearby galaxies, in preparation for
the shift of high- resolution imaging to the near-infrared.

WFPC2 10890

Morphologies of the Most Extreme High-Redshift Mid-IR-Luminous

The formative phase of the most massive galaxies may be extremely
luminous, characterized by intense star- and AGN-formation. Till now,
few such galaxies have been unambiguously identified at high redshift,
restricting us to the study of low-redshift ultraluminous infrared
galaxies as possible analogs. We have recently discovered a sample of
objects which may indeed represent this early phase in galaxy
formation, and are undertaking an extensive multiwavelength study of
this population. These objects are bright at mid-IR wavelengths
{F[24um]0.8mJy}, but deep ground based imaging suggests extremely
faint {and in some cases extended} optical counterparts {R~24-27}.
Deep K-band images show barely resolved galaxies. Mid-infrared
spectroscopy with Spitzer/IRS reveals that they have redshifts z ~
2-2.5, suggesting bolometric luminosities ~10^{13-14}Lsun! We propose
to obtain deep ACS F814W and NIC2 F160W images of these sources and
their environs in order to determine kpc-scale morphologies and
surface photometry for these galaxies. The proposed observations will
help us determine whether these extreme objects are merging systems,
massive obscured starbursts {with obscuration on kpc scales!} or very
reddened {locally obscured} AGN hosted by intrinsically low-luminosity

ACS/SBC 10815

The Blue Hook Populations of Massive Globular Clusters

Blue hook stars are a class of hot {~35,000 K} subluminous horizontal
branch stars that have been recently discovered using HST ultraviolet
images of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC 2808. These stars
occupy a region of the HR diagram that is unexplained by canonical
stellar evolution theory. Using new theoretical evolutionary and
atmospheric models, we have shown that the blue hook stars are very
likely the progeny of stars that undergo extensive internal mixing
during a late helium core flash on the white dwarf cooling curve. This
"flash mixing" produces an enormous enhancement of the surface helium
and carbon abundances, which suppresses the flux in the far
ultraviolet. Although flash mixing is more likely to occur in stars
that are born with high helium abundances, a high helium abundance, by
itself, does not explain the presence of a blue hook population -
flash mixing of the envelope is required. We propose ACS ultraviolet
{SBC/F150LP} observations of the five additional globular clusters for
which the presence of blue hook stars is suspected from longer
wavelength observations. Like omega Cen and NGC 2808, these five
targets are also among the most massive globular clusters, because
less massive clusters show no evidence for blue hook stars. Because
our targets span 1.5 dex in metallicity, we will be able to test our
prediction that flash-mixing should be less drastic in metal-rich blue
hook stars. In addition, our observations will test the hypothesis
that blue hook stars only form in globular clusters massive enough to
retain the helium-enriched ejecta from the first stellar generation.
If this hypothesis is correct, then our observations will yield
important constraints on the chemical evolution and early formation
history in globular clusters, as well as the role of helium
self-enrichment in producing blue horizontal branch morphologies and
multiple main sequence turnoffs. Finally, our observations will
provide new insight into the formation of the hottest horizontal
branch stars, with implications for the origin of the hot helium-rich
subdwarfs in the Galactic field.

WFPC2 10798

Dark Halos and Substructure from Arcs & Einstein Rings

The surface brightness distribution of extended gravitationally lensed
arcs and Einstein rings contains super-resolved information about the
lensed object, and, more excitingly, about the smooth and clumpy mass
distribution of the lens galaxies. The source and lens information can
non-parametrically be separated, resulting in a direct "gravitational
image" of the inner mass-distribution of cosmologically-distant
galaxies {Koopmans 2005; Koopmans et al. 2006 [astro-ph/0601628]}.
With this goal in mind, we propose deep HST ACS-F555W/F814W and
NICMOS-F160W WFC imaging of 20 new gravitational-lens systems with
spatially resolved lensed sources, of the 35 new lens systems
discovered by the Sloan Lens ACS Survey {Bolton et al. 2005} so far,
15 of which are being imaged in Cycle-14. Each system has been
selected from the SDSS and confirmed in two time- efficient HST-ACS
snapshot programs {cycle 13&14}. High-fidelity multi-color HST images
are required {not delivered by the 420s snapshots} to isolate these
lensed images {properly cleaned, dithered and extinction-corrected}
from the lens galaxy surface brightness distribution, and apply our
"gravitational maging" technique. Our sample of 35 early-type lens
galaxies to date is by far the largest, still growing, and most
uniformly selected. This minimizes selection biases and small-number
statistics, compared to smaller, often serendipitously discovered,
samples. Moreover, using the WFC provides information on the field
around the lens, higher S/N and a better understood PSF, compared with
the HRC, and one retains high spatial resolution through drizzling.
The sample of galaxy mass distributions - determined through this
method from the arcs and Einstein ring HST images - will be studied
to: {i} measure the smooth mass distribution of the lens galaxies
{dark and luminous mass are separated using the HST images and the
stellar M/L values derived from a joint stellar-dynamical analysis of
each system}; {ii} quantify statistically and individually the
incidence of mass-substructure {with or without obvious luminous
counter- parts such as dwarf galaxies}. Since dark-matter substructure
could be more prevalent at higher redshift, both results provide a
direct test of this prediction of the CDM hierarchical
structure-formation model.

WFPC2 10787

Modes of Star Formation and Nuclear Activity in an Early Universe

Nearby compact galaxy groups are uniquely suited to exploring the
mechanisms of star formation amid repeated and ongoing gravitational
encounters, conditions similar to those of the high redshift universe.
These dense groups host a variety of modes of star formation, and they
enable fresh insights into the role of gas in galaxy evolution. With
Spitzer mid-IR observations in hand, we have begun to obtain high
quality, multi-wavelength data for a well- defined sample of 12 nearby
{4500km/s} compact groups covering the full range of evolutionary
stages. Here we propose to obtain sensitive BVI images with the
ACS/WFC, deep enough to reach the turnover of the globular cluster
luminosity function, and WFPC2 U-band and ACS H-alpha images of
Spitzer-identified regions hosting the most recent star formation. In
total, we expect to detect over 1000 young star clusters forming
inside and outside galaxies, more than 4000 old globular clusters in
40 giant galaxies {including 16 early-type galaxies}, over 20 tidal

features, approximately 15 AGNs, and intragroup gas in most of the 12
groups. Combining the proposed ACS images with Chandra observations,
UV GALEX observations, ground-based H-alpha imaging, and HI data, we
will conduct a detailed study of stellar nurseries, dust, gas
kinematics, and AGN.


Significant Spacecraft Anomalies: (The following are preliminary
reports of potential non-nominal performance that will be


11094 GSACQ(2,3,2) fails to RGA control while LOS @ 341/23:09:43z

Upon acquisition of signal at 341/23:55:19z, QF2STOPF (FGS 2 stop
flag) was set and #44 commands did not update from their values prior
to LOS, indicating that GSACQ(2,3,2) at 23:09:43z did not succeed.
OBAD map at 23:17:47z had RSS error of 7.08 arcseconds. Further
information after engineering recorder dump.

11095 REacq(1,2,2) failed to RGA Hold @ 343/16:19z

During LOS, REacq(1,2,2) scheduled at 343/16:19:06z failed to RGA
Hold. At AOS 343/17:28:40z flags indicated the REacq failed due to
receiving stop flags QF1STOPF on FGS 1 and QF2STOPF on FGS 2.



**************************** SCHEDULED***** SUCCESSFUL
FGS GSacq******************* 23****************** 22
FGS REacq******************* 19****************** 18
OBAD with Maneuver********** 86****************** 86


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